One of the ways of improving the attractiveness of public transport is to bring it closer to its potential users. A long walking distance from a stop is often one of the critical factors limiting its more frequent and extensive use. Studies dealing with the accessibility of transport networks usually work only with the closest stop. This article analyses the actual walking distance from the place of residence to the preferred stop. The survey used a questionnaire method and was conducted in two cities in the Czech Republic—Ostrava and Olomouc. Based on the results of the study, the average walking distance was assessed and the impact of demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, number of members in the household, economic activity, the presence of a child in the household, and car ownership), transport behavior (preferred mode of transportation, car convenience and opinions on public transport), and urban characteristics (prevailing housing type) on the walking distance were analyzed. The main findings prove a significant impact on walking distance by a number of these factors, but the preferred use of a car for commuting or unemployment does not significantly affect walking distance.
A method for surface analysis of cold rolled sheets is proposed in this paper. The approach is based on a low-cost specially built camera system followed by spectral analysis of the data captured from metal surfaces. The focus is on the changes in the surface topography caused by cold rolling with emphasis towards periodicities in the processed surface. Angular profile of the spectrum is calculated and used to display periodicities in surface topography and show their direction. The results obtained by using the proposed system were compared with results obtained from the optical profilometer MicroProf FRT. The experiments show that cold rolling creates marks on the surface of the material, which represent periodicities that can be effectively detected by the proposed method and camera system. Even though the camera system is not able to measure precise surface roughness, it is able to detect periodicities and the results of spectral analysis are comparable with the results from the optical profilometer.