Marija Vavlukis, Biljana Zafirovska, Emilija Antova, Bekim Pocesta, Enes Shehu, Hajber Taravari, Irena Kotlar, Darko Kitanovski, Danica Petkoska, Ivan Vasilev, Filip Janusevski, Ivica Bojovski and Sashko Kedev
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and estimate the relationship between stress hyperglycemia, glyco-regulation and newly diagnosed diabetes with hospital morbidity and mortality.
Methods: This was an observational study which included all patients hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome (January 2015 until April 2017) at the University Clinic of Cardiology in Skopje, Macedonia. We analyzed demographic, clinical, biochemical variables and hospital morbidity and mortality. Five investigated groups were compared using a single biochemical parameter glycated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) depending on the presence of known diabetes before the acute event: 0-without DM (HgbA1c <5.6%), 1-newly diagnosed pre-diabetes (HgbA1c 5.6-6.5%), 2-newly diagnosed diabetes (HgbA1c ≥ 6.5%), 3-known well controlled diabetes (HgbA1c <7%) and 4-known un-controlled diabetes (HgbA1c ≥7%).
Results: 860 patients were analyzed. Impaired glucose metabolism was confirmed in 35% of patients, 9% of which were with newly diagnosed diabetes. Stress hyperglycemia was reported in 27.3% (3.6% were without diabetes). The highest values of stress hyperglycemia were reported in newly diagnosed and known un-controlled diabetes. In-hospital morbidity and mortality were 15% and 5% accordingly and the rate was highest in patients with newly diagnosed and known, but un-controlled diabetes. HgbA1c, stress hyperglycemia, and poor glycemic control have emerged as significant independent predictors of hospital morbidity and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Conclusion: High prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was observed in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Stress hyperglycemia and failure to achieve glycemic control are independent predictors of hospital morbidity and mortality.