The issues related to the use of test dummies for experimental research in the field of automotive engineering have been addressed. The article discusses the historical introduction and development of the dummies in the biomechanical tests, which have contributed to the replacement of, previously conducted tests on corpses or volunteers. The evolution of dummies development Evolution of the dummies construction development to the present times has been presented. Question was raised: what is the “similarity” between the dummy living human being. Contemporary dummies reflect very well features of the human body are made of good quality materials and can be equipped with numerous sensors performing various measurements. Comparative empirical tests carried out with an adult dummy and a living adult of similar parameters such as: size (weight and height) body proportions have been presented. The impact of vibrations on the human occupant riding a motor vehicle was examined, with road tests being carried out of realized driving on various road surfaces within that work and with the data recorded being analysed in the time domain and frequency domain. In the time domain, time histories of the accelerations recorded were analysed and the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration values were calculated. In the frequency domain, the power spectral density (PSD) values and the absolute transmittance (amplification) values were determined for the acceleration signals recorded. The analysis of the measurement results for the ability to absorb vibration by living human being and the dummy has been done. The differences and similarities between the living human subject and the test dummy have been presented from the point of view of utilizing such subjects for experimental tests.
The paper deals with problems connected with the transportation of dangerous cargo in articulated road tankers. The problems related to transverse stability of articulated vehicles have been discussed. The rig and experimental tests carried out to explore the transverse stability problem have been presented. Attention has been paid to the specificity of articulated road tankers. The necessity of rig and field testing of vehicles of this kind has been emphasized. The specificity of the transportation of such articulated vehicles by sea has been highlighted.
Enterprise in the EU is currently a single market business, but on which the conditions are not completely unified. In the case of mineral oil excise duty a minimum level of taxation is set by EU rules, but individual states do not strictly prescribe a specific rate of tax. It is a fact for international road transport, that there are states on the route of transport, where it is preferable to pump fuel. Because the mineral oil tax is an income of state budget in concrete state, is good for the state, if the carrier pumps fuel on the territory of that state. For carriers who only drive within the country the higher tax rate is more advantageous in terms of choice. For this reason, some EU countries apply for the selected group of entrepreneurs, the refund of excise duty due to the use of carriers in their territory and to achieve higher tax deduction in cumulative terms. The purpose of this contribution is to identify the possibilities for refunding excise duty in the Slovak Republic and to propose a procedure for assessing the effects of the refund of excise duty on mineral oils.
The paper presents a design basis adopted for the construction of a test facility for the rig testing of rolling bearings. One of the methods of inspection of the bearings is the testing of the bearings as components having already been mounted in a specific machine component unit and tested in the conditions of operation of the unit as a whole. This article presents preliminary engineering requirements and the design of a special test rig for the examination of rolling bearings without the necessity of mounting the bearings in a specific machine component unit. The rig testing is widely used in consideration of numerous good points of such a method. The simulation testing of bearings (on test rigs) consists in reproducing as accurately as possible the real conditions of operation of the bearings when mounted in the device for which they are intended. The rigs used for such tests are complicated and expensive, but the results of such tests are more “reliable” and more accurately represent the impact of various operational factors (loads) on the durability of the bearings under test.
International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. Despite the unification of market access, tax and social harmonization is not ensured in international road freight transport. An unequal tax burden on carriers and different requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market. The aim of the contribution is also to provide the readers with the answers to the questions: Is it possible under current EU conditions to harmonize tax and social conditions? What impact would this harmonization have on business environment?