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  • Author: Dariusz Wasyl x
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Molecular Epidemiology of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Saintpaul Isolated from Animals, Food, and Humans in 12 European Countries


The molecular epidemiological relationship among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Saintpaul, which was identified in animals, food, and humans in several EU countries, was investigated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity (82 XbaI PFGE profiles with 42.6% similarity) among 159 S. Saintpaul isolates from animals (n=91), food of animal origin (n=29), and humans (n=36) in 12 European countries during 2005 to 2009. Most frequent profiles (n=12) comprised almost 50% of the tested isolates. Profiles obtained in isolates from a single source within a particular geographical region or particular period of time were indistinguishable or closely related. Turkeys were confirmed as the major reservoir for S. Saintpaul. Indistinguishable PFGE profiles were identified in up to 19 isolates from turkey breeding and fattening flocks and food over the study period. Other animals, including food and pets, may also contribute to S. Saintpaul spread. International trade of animals and food, as well as travelling contributes to the spread of a specific clone to different geographical areas. Although control programmes in breeding turkey flocks, together with improved biosecurity, may interrupt the major transmission routes, it was concluded that S. Saintpaul will continue to represent a potential threat to human health.

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Phenotypic diversity and potential virulence factors of the Shewanella putrefaciens group isolated from freshwater fish



The Shewanella putrefaciens group are ubiquitous microorganisms recently isolated from different freshwater fish species and causing serious health disorders. The purpose of the study was to characterise isolates of the S. putrefaciens group with special emphasis on elucidating serological diversity and determining putative virulence factors.

Material and Methods

Isolates collected from freshwater fish (n = 44) and reference strains were used. The identification of bacteria was carried out using biochemical kits and 16S rRNA sequencing. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the S. putrefaciens group. The bacterium’s susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, its enzymatic properties, and its adhesion ability to fish cell lines were also tested. Finally, selected isolates were used in challenge experiments in common carp and rainbow trout.


Excluding six isolates undeterminable for species, the bacteria were classified to three species: S. putrefaciens, S. xiamenensis, and S. oneidensis, and showed some phenotypic diversity. Fourteen serological variants of the S. putrefaciens group were determined with the newly developed serotyping scheme.


Serodiversity may play an important role in the virulence of particular isolates. Further, S. putrefaciens group members adhere to epithelial cells and produce enzymes which may contribute to their virulence. Challenge tests confirmed the pathogenicity of the S. putrefaciens group for fish.

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Microbiological Quality of Compound Feed Used in Poland


The aim of the study was the assessment of microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010. The examinations were done at all veterinary diagnostic laboratories operating in the frame of official laboratory system. The occurrence of Salmonella sp. and counts of Enterobacteriaceae family, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total microorganisms, and fungi were assessed. Assays were done following Polish, European, and international standards. Percentage of contamination of compound feed for poultry, pigs, and cattle by Salmonella sp. ranged from 0% to 3.5%. The highest contamination level by Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were detected in wet petfood. No more than 106 cfu/g of aerobic bacteria and no more than 105 cfu/g of fungi were detected in the feed. The results of the study revealed that the microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010 was better than the quality of the feed used in 2003-2006.

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Distribution of Salmonella serovars along the food chain in Poland, 2010–2015


Introduction: Data collection on the Salmonella occurrence is crucial in effective implementation of different actions or control programmes aiming to protect consumers’ health and to reduce the level of Salmonella prevalence in farm animals. The goal was to describe Salmonella serovar distribution along the food chain in Poland during 2010–2015 and to identify their epidemiological importance.

Material and Methods: Slide agglutination according to White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme was used to identify Salmonella serovars of 6,928 isolates originating from animals, food, feeds, and fertilisers.

Results: In total, 160 Salmonella serovars were identified. Differences in serovar distribution were observed depending on animal species. Among isolates from hens, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis were the most prevalent. Serovar pattern in turkeys differed from those in hens, with S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul being the most prevalent. Monophasic S. Typhimurium was predominant in pigs. Serovars found in food reflected those observed among livestock animals. Nine out of the ten most prevalent serovars in animals and humans were also found in organic fertilisers.

Conclusion: Serotyping of large number of isolates from different sources is essential for insight on emerging serovars and trends of Salmonella occurrence. This may increase the value of epidemiological data and result in updating of Salmonella control programmes to target further epidemiologically important serovars in animals and better protection of consumers’ health.

Open access