The objective of the paper was to determine the costs of production and production effectiveness of pellets made of sawdust and characteristics of logistics of raw material carriage and distribution of pellets. The scope of the paper covered the research carried out in the branch of DREWEX company located in Chotelek town (Świętokrzyskie voivodeship, Province of Busko Zdrój). Unit costs of pellets production were: 513.4 PLN∙t−1 for option 1, 423.3 PLN∙t−1 for option 2 and 393.3 PLN∙t−1 for option 3. The most favourable was option 3 when the pellets were produced on the technology line in the 3-shift system day and night. The average distance to seven cities from which sawdust was delivered was 43.6 km and the distance to which production was distributed to ten cities was on average 105.5 km.
The objective of the paper was to present straw pellets production technology and to determine their production costs. The paper presents also the cost structure and economic effectiveness of pellets production. Tests were carried out in EKO-BIOMASA company which produces pellets. It is located in Biechów in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. Unit costs of pellets production were: 310.20 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 1, 285.40 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 2 and 278.90 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 3. The most favourable was option 3 when the pellet production was carried out on the technology line in the 3-shift system day and night. In all three variants of pellet production, the highest costs were in case of electric energy. Its participation in the cost structure in relation to the option was within 42% (option 3) and 38% (option 1). The obtained indicator of economic effectiveness for all the investigated options was higher than one.
The paper carries out a comparative analysis of the production technology of energy willow on plantations varied on account of the surface area in the aspect of the impact on the natural environment. The studies covered the cultivation of willow in the southern part of Poland. Technologies from soil preparation for cultivation to first harvesting and transport to a farm were analysed. A type of the applied technological treatments, used machines and transport means as well as the time of their operation, amount of the consumed fuel, pesticides, fertilizers, and water were taken into consideration. The research results were referred to the surface area of willow cultivation (1 ha). To determine the environmental impact SimaPro program version 126.96.36.199 was used. It was concluded, inter alia, that cultivation of willow on smaller plantations constitutes a bigger environmental footprint.
The paper analyzes the costs of production of wood sawdust briquettes, manufactured by the company Brykiet-Pol2, based in Goleszów in southern Poland. In addition, production technology, raw material supply and distribution of the finished product were analyzed. The costs of producing one ton of briquettes for the four assessed variants ranged from PLN 364.8 (option D) to PLN 648.7 (option A). The cost structure was dominated by the purchase of raw material and depreciation of the technological line. The most economically advantageous production variant was option C, currently implemented in the company (production costs: PLN 458.7·t−1), and the proposed option D, using two briquetting presses. The latter option increased production efficiency and reduced unit costs of briquette production in a three-shift system around the clock.
The objective of the paper was to determine the work expenditures and costs of eradication of an energy willow plantation with currently applied mechanical methods and with the use of the test model of a machine for cutting willow rootstocks as a part of the scientific project no. PBS2/A8/26/2014. The scope of the paper covered research for four machine units constructed for a twelve-year willow plantation with the surface area of 3 ha. Work inputs for eradication of the plantation of the investigated aggregates were within 8.1 to 50.4 mhr ∙ ha-1. Work inputs with the new machine were 22.3 mhr ∙ ha-1. The level of work inputs was influenced by low working speeds of the tractor-machine unit and working speeds from 0.4 to 2.3 m. Costs of willow plantation eradication with current mechanical methods were from 4302 to 15536 PLN ∙ ha-1, and with the use of the new machine it was 5457 PLN ∙ ha-1.
The objective of the paper was to determine fuel consumption on elimination of the energy willow plantation with current mechanical methods with the use of the machine research model. The paper covers investigations of four machine units. The lowest fuel consumption (142.6 l∙ha−1) with the use of Meri Crusher MJS-2.0) did not ensure effectiveness of operation of this unit. Efficiency of elimination of the plantation in this case is only 36.4%. On the other hand, the highest consumption of diesel oil (776.4 l∙ha−1) was reported for FAO FAR model FV 4088, and the effectiveness of elimination was not satisfactory and it was 57.0%. The highest effectiveness of elimination of the plantation was reported for the model of a new machine. Fuel consumption in this case was 535.7 l∙ha−1 and the willow plantation elimination effectiveness was the highest and it amounted to 94.8%.
Production capacity is the amount of production with the determined assortment structure possible to achieve by a particular production unit in a determined time at the optimal use of production factors and at maintaining the products quality corresponding to standards. The objective of the paper was to determine the production power and output of particular workstations which constitute an assembly line of dry animal feed. The scope of research covered an assembly line in the establishment which produces dry feed for pet animals. Based on information and documentation obtained from the company manager and on the work schedule determined for particular workstations, the operation time of a machine, human work time (operation of a machine) and operation time of the entire station with its working surface was determined. Research showed that workstations which constituted the assembly line of dry animal feed were loaded within 76 to 86%. The lowest loading was reported in the mill and LP02 assembly line and it was respectively 76 and 78%. Whereas loading of the remaining devices was comparable and was at the level within 84 to 86%.
The paper discusses supplier evaluation as a tool for controlling the level of service in a production enterprise based on data from the selected production company. The suppliers were assessed and analyzed based on their respective assortment groups and strengths and weaknesses of their activity were indicated. It was found that the supply chain in the analyzed company is largely determined by the type of ordered goods, the place of its production and the method of its distribution to the customer.