Emotional Intelligence and the Sense of Efficiency of Coaching and Instructing in Wrestling
Introduction. The aim of this study was to diagnose the level of emotional intelligence and sense of efficiency among the occupational group of coaches and instructors in wrestling. Material and methods. The study involved 27 participants of a training course for coaches and instructors in training (25 men and 2 women). The basic methods of research involved the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire INTE and the GSES scale for measurement of the sense of efficacy. Their use allowed us to diagnose the average level of emotional intelligence and the sense of self-efficacy. Results. Coaches and instructors are characterised by average level of emotional intelligence and the sense of self-efficacy. First class coaches are characterized by significantly higher levels of emotional intelligence, and the belonging to the group of trainers has no influence on the sense of efficacy. Conclusions. The results of the study can provide guidance to create/modify training programs for sports coaches. Developing mental toughness and improving emotional intelligence should occupy a special place in the training process wrestlers.
Introduction. The aim of this work was to assess selected validity criteria of motor tasks included in Batak Lite. The tasks are used to control coordination motor abilities in athletes of different sports. Material and methods. Twenty male Greco-Roman wrestlers from the sports school SMS in Radom were included in the study. They were 17-18 years of age and their training experience was 4-7.5 years long. The validity of motor tasks was determined on the basis of two criteria, i.e. reliability and diagnostic accuracy. To define the reliability of the tests, the research was carried out twice with an interval of 5-7-days (test-retest). Diagnostic accuracy of selected indices was determined with the help of three main criteria. The analysis included 6 motor tasks performed with the use of Batak Lite. Results. Tests I, II, IV and V are characterised by reliability coefficients higher than 0.50 and, regardless of the assumed accuracy criterion, by coefficients higher than 0.30. Thus, they meet the validity requirements within the assessed criteria. The highest accuracy coefficients were observed in motor tests assessing quick reaction (r = 0.46-0.63), simple reaction including sensory (r = 0.61-0.78), motor (r = 0.33-0.46) and complex (r = 0.34-0.49) reactions as well as spatio-temporal orientation (r = 0.33-0.49) and movement coupling (r = 0.34-0.49). Conclusions. Four Batak Lite tests displayed sufficient reliability and diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, they can be implemented in the training process of wrestlers. The strongest correlation was noted between Batak Lite tests and motor tests that assessed quick reaction, spatio-temporal orientation and movement coupling.
Introduction. Wrestling is a sport that requires proper physical and mental preparation. The authors present selected psychological resources, emotional intelligence and creative attitude, as factors influencing the broadly defined mastery, both in the area of sport and out of it. These variables guarantee better adaptation to changing conditions and they are also connected with the effectiveness of handling different situations and optimal problem solving. The aim of the study was to diagnose emotional intelligence and creative attitude among young female and male wrestlers. Material and methods. The study included 20 females from the regional team of cadets and juniors and 19 male wrestlers from the sports school. The control group consisted of two deliberately selected groups of untrained students - 20 girls and 19 boys. KANH and INTE questionnaires were used in the study. Results. In the three groups under investigation medium levels of emotional intelligence and creative vs. reproductive attitude were observed. It was only female wrestlers who manifested low levels of emotional intelligence which, similar to the levels of nonconformity, heuristic thinking and creative attitude, were lower than in female students from the control group. The female wrestlers demonstrated higher levels of conformity and reproductive attitude. Female students demonstrated higher levels of emotional intelligence and conformity than male students. No differences between male and female wrestlers were observed. Conclusions. The findings show that it is necessary to conduct longitudinal research on athletes and untrained individuals. Bearing in mind that learning a motoric task depends, inter alia, on intellectual and emotional factors, the authors also recommend another course of research, i.e. the verification of how these variables are related to the effectiveness of learning motoric tasks. The authors' own research results as well as further (planned) investigations will make it possible to profile various educational effects and deliberately strengthen the potential of young wrestlers.
Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk and Stefan Litwiniuk
Introduction. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that different approaches to the training process in the selfdefense and martial arts, reflected the hierarchical structure of the basic activities of a coach. Materials and methods. Opinions of 159 trainers with many years of experience in capoeira (n=16), taekwon-do ITF version (n=95) and wrestling (n=48) were collected. Diagnostic survey method was used, and the instrument was a questionnaire developed by Tumanian  and modified by Januszewski and Sterkowicz . Results. Capoeira and wrestling trainers did not agree as to the status of any of the 20 coach's activities. The biggest differences were in assessing the significance of instructing trainees during competitions, developing planning process and first aid giving. Rsp ranks correlation coefficient = 0.66, p<0.01. Capoeira and taekwon-do coaches had consistent opinions in case of five activities. The largest differences occurred in terms of organizing and judging the competition and instructing trainees during competitions. Rsp rank correlation coefficient = 0.50, p<0.05. The opinions of taekwon-do and wrestling coaches were in line for two activities and the two activities were given different ranks. Rsp rank correlation coefficient = 0.71, p<0.001. Conclusions. Managing technical and physical preparation of trainees, as well as their training process and body control, were the most important activities of a coach in three combat variations. Scientific-methodical research was considered unimportant. None of the surveyed coaches agreed with others on the importance of professional activities, and their rank does not differentiate representatives of the three types of combat.
Dariusz Gierczuk, Zbigniew Bujak, Jan Rowiński and Aleksey Dmitriyev
Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare CMAs in elite wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Material and methods. Forty-nine Greco-Roman wrestlers and ITF taekwon-do competitors were included in the study. The wrestlers were 21.9±2.74 years old, while the taekwon-do competitors were 22.7±5.78 years old. The former group had between 7 and 14 years' training experience and the latter group had from 6 to 16 years' experience. All subjects were elite sportspeople (between first class and international master class levels). Five CMAs were assessed using 14 indices. Computer tests from the Vienna Test System were employed in the study. Results. It was shown that there were no significant differences in CMA levels between wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Wrestlers from higher sports classes outperformed competitors who possessed lower sports classes in the majority of CMA indices. Statistically significant differences were observed for simple reaction, movement coupling and high frequency of movements. Taekwon-do competitors at the international master sports class (IM) level scored better than athletes who were at national master class (NM) and first class (I) levels in spatial orientation, reaction time, movement coupling and high frequency of movements. Regardless of the type of combat sport, competitors demonstrated high individual differences in CMAs, which may indicate that a focus on coordination improvement could increase training effectiveness. Conclusions. Further research on identifying predominant CMAs in sportspeople at different levels of competition, particularly in those achieving significant sports successes may be conducted. Tests to thoroughly diagnose coordination should be employed in such investigations.