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Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in clinical cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 2011. There were examined 841 serum samples and 41 nasal swabs and lungs of cattle from different farms of six regions of Poland (13 provinces). The obtained results indicated that the mean prevalence of M. bovis infection in Polish cattle population suffering from BRD was 64.3% and among them 8.4% of the animals were highly positive. On the other hand, in particular regions, it altered - 72.0% in east region, 52.7% in central region, 66.4% in south region, 64.1% in north-west region, 56.5% in north region, and 58.8% in south-west region. It should be added that within the presented regions, the highest values (82.4%) were reported in south region (Malopolskie province), whereas the lowest ones (42.9%) were in east region (Lubelskie province). However, field strains of M. bovis were isolated from the lungs of affected cattle only in the north-west region of Poland (Zachodniopomorskie province).

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is a well-known cause of various disorders in cattle, such as pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis kerato-conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media, meningitis, and reproductive disorders. There are no commercial vaccines against M. bovis in Europe, therefore, experimental ones are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental M. bovis vaccine, containing the Polish field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer adjuvants, on the T- and B-cell response in calves.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 12 calves divided into two equal groups: experimental and control. The experimental group was subcutaneously injected with the vaccine composed of the field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer as adjuvants, whereas the control one received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The blood samples were collected prior to the study (day 0), then in 24 h intervals up to day 7 and then each 7 days until day 84 post immunisation. The T- and B-cell response as CD2+ (T-cells), CD4+ (T-helper cells), CD8+ (T-cytotoxic cells), and WC4+ (B-cells) markers was analysed using flow cytometry.

Results: In response to the immunisation, the general stimulation of T-cell was observed, the most seen in an increase in CD8+ subpopulation. Similarly, a visible rise in the percentage of WC4+ cells was registered in the vaccinated calves when compared to the control animals.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the novel experimental M. bovis vaccine containing saponin and lysozyme dimer effectively stimulated the cell-mediated immunity in the calves.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is known as a causative agent of many disorders in cattle. In Europe, there is still a lack of commercial vaccines against M. bovis infection. Acute phase response (APR) is a non-specific host reaction to infection, most seen in changes in production of acute phase proteins. The aim of this study was to analyse APR in calves administered with an experimental M. bovis vaccine.

Material and Methods: Twelve healthy female calves were divided into two equal groups: experimental and control. The experimental vaccine containing the field M. bovis strain and two adjuvants such as saponin and lysozyme dimer was subcutaneously administered to the experimental group. Phosphate buffered saline was taken as the placebo and given to the control group by the same route as the vaccine. Blood samples were collected prior to the study (day 0), then daily up to day 7, and then each seven days until day 84 post vaccination. The concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inteleukin-4 (IL-4) were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

Results: Following the vaccination, a significant increase in SAA, Hp, and IFN-γ concentrations was observed when compared to the unvaccinated calves, whereas the IL-4 concentration was not detectable.

Conclusion: The experimental saponin-based M. bovis vaccine containing lysozyme dimer adjuvant visibly stimulated the APR in the calves, and some specific cytokines (Th1-dependent) directly involved in this response.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Ewelina Szacawa and Roger D. Ayling

Abstract

Introduction: Several Mycoplasma species can cause severe diseases in ruminant hosts, some of which are the diseases listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The role of the Cervidae family in carrying and transmitting ruminant mycoplasma infections in Poland is unknown. Material and Methods: Antibody and antigen detection tests for the main mycoplasma species that can affect wild ruminants were performed on 237 samples (serum, nasal swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung) collected from 161 animals during 2011-2014. The samples were obtained from a cull of healthy population of deer which included: 96 red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus), 19 fallow deer (Dama dama), and 46 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Results: Serological screening tests revealed positive reactions to Mycoplasma bovis in one sample and to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae in three samples; however, these three samples were negative by immunoblotting. Other antibody and antigen detection tests demonstrated negative results. Conclusion: Currently wild cervids in Poland do not play a significant role in transmitting mycoplasma infections to domestic animals, but they remain a potential risk.

Open access

Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Dariusz Bednarek, Jan Markowski, Ewa Hanczakowska and Krzysztof Kwiate

Abstract

The effect of Roundup Ready MON-40-3-2 soybean meal and Bt maize MON810 on sows performance and haematological indices, including parameters of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and trombocytes, as well as the piglets rearing indices were evaluated in the experiment carried out on 24 sows and their progeny. After mating sows were divided into groups: I - control, conventional soybean meal and conventional maize; II - genetically modified (GM) soybean meal and conventional maize; III - conventional soybean meal and GM maize; IV - GM soybean meal and GM maize. All used feed mixtures were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, however differed in presence or absence of genetically modified maize MON810 (5% for pregnant and 8% for lactating sows) and/or soybean meal MON-40-3-2 (4% for pregnant and 14% for lactating sows). Born piglets were allotted to the same group as their mothers. The study showed that feeding pregnant and lactating sows with mixtures containing genetically modified RR soybean or/and meal Bt maize did not significantly affect their reproductive characteristics and offspring performance. There was no effect of dietary treatment on haematological indices. Transfer of transgenic DNA from GM feed to blood was not confirmed.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Roger D. Ayling and Ewelina Szacawa

Abstract

The effect of three different field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis on selected immunological parameters in experimentally infected calves was studied. Calves were kept separately in 4 experimental groups, and animals of 3 groups were infected intratracheally with one of the three selected isolates of M. bovis. The control group was inoculated intra-tracheally with sterile physiological saline. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected just before the calf inoculation, then daily for seven days, and then weekly for another three weeks. The presence of M. bovis antigen, M. bovis antibodies, total protein, gamma globulins, IgA, IgM, IgG, acute phase proteins (haptoglobulin and serum amyloid A), as well as interferon-γ and interleukin-4 concentrations were determined. M. bovis was detected intermittently during the study in the infected groups from day 1, whilst the control group remained free of the pathogen. M. bovis antibodies were detected in some of infected animals in the second, third, and fourth week after infection. The stimulation and/or immunological suppression varied between the M. bovis isolates used for the inoculation. All M. bovis isolates induced a rise of APP and gamma globulin concentrations in infected calves. However, in this study the mucosal immune response appeared to be down-regulated, which was expressed with a general lack of IgA stimulation.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Andrzej Pomianowski, Wioletta Krystkiewicz, Przemysław Sobiech, Sylwia Lew and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Blood morphology in dogs infected with intracellular parasites of the genera Babesia and Ehrlichia was examined. The parasites were detected in peripheral blood smears stained by the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method. During the parasitic invasion, a decrease in thrombocyte counts was observed. This was connected with forming platelet aggregates. It was noted that the number of giant platelets simultaneously increased.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek and Ewelina Szacawa

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony variant (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma agalactiae antibodies in ruminants from different provinces/regions of Poland. Eight hundred and ten bovine serum samples were examined for MmmSC antibodies by the use of competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT). ELISA was also used for M. agalactiae antibody detection in 951 serum samples of sheep and goats. The first screening serological examination of MmmSC antibodies using c-ELISA revealed two (0.25%) positive and 135 (16.92%) doubtful results. The second examination revealed only 52 doubtful results, whereas the rest samples were negative. To compare, the final confirmatory examination by CFT gave 100% of seronegative results. The examination performed in small ruminants demonstrated only one doubtful result, which was finally defined as negative following the second ELISA, whereas the remaining samples were negative. To conclude, the present serological study showed the lack of infections in Polish domestic ruminant caused by two mycoplasmas.

Open access

Stanisław Milewski, Bożena Zaleska, Dariusz Bednarek, Zenon Tański, Przemysław Sobiech, Katarzyna Ząbek and Zofia Antoszkiewicz

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of yeast preparations on selected properties of meat from suckling lambs. The experiment was conducted on 30 Kamieniec rams divided into three groups: I - control, II and III - experimental. Throughout the 100-day rearing period, the experimental animals were fed diets supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae prebiotics: Inter Yeast S® brewer's yeast in group II, and Biolex®-Beta S in group III. Fat content was determined by Soxhlet extraction. The fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat was determined by esterification followed by gas chromatography analysis. The content of vitamins A and E was determined by liquid chromatography. A significant increase in the content of fat, cholesterol, and vitamin E was noted in the meat of lambs of group II in comparison with control. The fat of animals in group II contained more fatty acids: C14:1, C18:2, C22:6 (P≤0.05), and C18:2 n-6 cis9trans11 (P≤0.01), and less C20:4 (P≤0.01). The fat of animals of group III contained more C18:0 and C22:6 fatty acids (P≤0.05), and less C18:0 (P≤0.05). The fat in this group had also lower concentrations of MUFA (P≤0.05), UFA, and, consequently, a lower UFA/SFA ratio (P≤0.05) in comparison with controls. The yeast-based supplements significantly affected selected health-promoting properties of lamb meat. The applied diet supplements had no significant effect on AI and TI values.

Open access

Ewelina Szacawa, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Ruben Rosales and Roger Ayling

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE). The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8%) instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1%) instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.