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Dariusz Łydźba and Maciej Sobótka

Abstract

The paper deals with an impact of non–mechanical loads on the state of strength in massive concrete hydraulic structures. An example of hydroelectric plant subjected to the effect of water temperature annual fluctuation is considered. Numerical analysis of transient thermal–elasticity problem was performed. After determining the temperature distributions within the domain, the Duhamel-Neumann set of constitutive equations was employed to evaluate fields of mechanical quantities: displacement, strain and stress. The failure criterion proposed by Pietruszczak was adopted in assessing whether the load induces exceeding of strength of concrete within the structure volume. The primary finding is that the temperature effect can lead to damage of concrete in draft tubes and spirals, especially in winter months.

Open access

Adrian Różański, Dariusz Łydżba and Piotr Jabłoński

Abstract

In the paper, a numerical study of the size of representative volume element for the linear elasticity problem is performed. The calculations are carried out for three different types of random microstructures: checkerboard, the Ising model microstructure and Debye microstructure. It is postulated and then verified that there exists a relation between the morphology of microstructure contained in the lineal-path function and the minimum RVE size. It is confirmed, on the basis of numerical examples, that for all the microstructures considered the largest lineal-path can be treated as the size of RVE

Open access

Magdalena Rajczakowska and Dariusz Łydżba

Abstract

This paper presents the nanoindentation investigation of the evolution of concrete microstructure modified by the Internal Crystallization Technology mineral powders. The samples under study were retrieved from a fragment of a circular concrete lining of the vertical mine shaft at a depth of approximately 1,000 m. Due to the aggressive environment and exposure to contaminated water, the internal surface of the structure was deteriorated, decreasing its strength significantly. The mineral powders were applied directly on the surface lining. The specimens were investigated one month, three months and one year after the application of the aforementioned substance in order to verify the time dependence of the strengthening processes and durability of the crystalline phase. The microstructural changes of concrete were assessed with the use of nanoindentation technique. The testing procedure involved including the previously cut specimens in the epoxy resin and grinding and polishing in order to reduce the surface roughness. As a result of the nanoindentation tests the hardness as well as Young’s modulus of the material were evaluated. The results were then compared and statistically analyzed. As a consequence, the disintegration time of the crystalline network in the pores of concrete was identified.

Open access

Marek Kawa and Dariusz Łydżba

Abstract

The paper deals with evaluation of bearing capacity of strip foundation on random purely cohesive soil. The approach proposed combines random field theory in the form of random layers with classical limit analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. For given realization of random the bearing capacity of strip footing is evaluated by employing the kinematic approach of yield design theory. The results in the form of histograms for both bearing capacity of footing as well as optimal depth of failure mechanism are obtained for different thickness of random layers. For zero and infinite thickness of random layer the values of depth of failure mechanism as well as bearing capacity assessment are derived in a closed form. Finally based on a sequence of Monte Carlo simulations the bearing capacity of strip footing corresponding to a certain probability of failure is estimated. While the mean value of the foundation bearing capacity increases with the thickness of the random layers, the ultimate load corresponding to a certain probability of failure appears to be a decreasing function of random layers thickness.

Open access

Dariusz Łydżba, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Damian Stefaniuk and Andrzej Kmita

Abstract

The article presents an application of X-ray microtomography for identification of the carbonation zone in concrete material. A concrete specimen subjected earlier to harsh environmental conditions is investigated. The material is firstly checked with the use of chemical corrosion indicators and then is subjected to microstructural analysis performed with the use of X-ray microtomography. Two different settings of scanning parameters are applied implying the image resolutions of approximately 14 μm per 1 pixel and about 7 μm per 1 pixel, respectively. The results obtained are then compared and analyzed. The depth of the carbonation zone is evaluated based on the attenuation curve. The paper highlights also the significance of the corrosion phenomenon in concrete structures. Details of the deterioration mechanisms in concrete are shortly presented.

Open access

Dariusz Łydżba, Adrian Różański, Magdalena Rajczakowska and Damian Stefaniuk

Abstract

The needle probe test, as a thermal conductivity measurement method, has become very popular in recent years. In the present study, the efficiency of this methodology, for the case of composite materials, is investigated based on the numerical simulations. The material under study is a two-phase composite with periodic microstructure of “matrix-inclusion” type. Two-scale analysis, incorporating micromechanics approach, is performed. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite considered is found by the solution of the appropriate boundary value problem stated for the single unit cell. Next, numerical simulations of the needle probe test are carried out. In this case, two different locations of the measuring sensor are considered. It is shown that the “equivalent” conductivity, derived from the probe test, is strongly affected by the location of the sensor. Moreover, comparing the results obtained for different scales, one can notice that the “equivalent” conductivity cannot be interpreted as the effective one for the composites considered. Hence, a crude approximation of the effective property is proposed based on the volume fractions of constituents and the equivalent conductivities derived from different sensor locations.

Open access

Magdalena Rajczakowska, Damian Stefaniuk and Dariusz Łydżba

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present an example of the material microstructure characterization with the use of X-ray micro-CT and nanoindentation measurements. Firstly, the current scope of application of the aforementioned techniques is provided within different fields of science. Then, background of each of the methods is presented. The methodology of X-ray micro-CT is described with the emphasis on the Beer’s law formulation. In addition, the basics of the nanoindentation technique are outlined and major formulas for the hardness and Young’s modulus calculation are given. Finally, example results for a concrete sample are presented. The microstructure of the selected material is firstly characterized in terms of geometry using the results from the microtomograhy measurements, e.g., porosity and attenuation profiles, pore and aggregate size distribution, shape factor of pores, etc. Next, the results of the nanoindentation tests are provided, namely the hardness and Young’s modulus versus the height of the sample. The influence of the number of tests and statistical analysis on the final results is underlined.

Open access

Maciej Sobótka, Dariusz Łydżba and Adrian Różański

Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of shape optimization of underground tunnel excavation. In the pioneering work of Sałustowicz, the elliptic shape was assumed a priori to be an optimal one and then a determination of suitable semi-axes ratio was only the question. Two cases were distinguished there: self-supporting excavation and excavation with the structural support. An evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) procedure, employed in 2005 to optimize shape of underground excavation, confirms the assumptions concerning the case of self-supporting excavations. The case of supported excavation is considered in the present work. Optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA) is incorporated in the study. An energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors’ previous papers is also adopted. Itasca FLAC software is utilized in numerical examples. Four different in situ stress ratios are investigated. The numerical results obtained confirm that the optimal shape tends to be an ellipse. The semi-axes ratio demonstrates compliance with the assumptions already existing in literature.

Open access

Damian Stefaniuk, Adrian Różański and Dariusz Łydżba

Abstract

In this work, the complex microstructure of the soil solid, at the microscale, is modeled by prescribing the spatial variability of thermal conductivity coefficient to distinct soil separates. We postulate that the variation of thermal conductivity coefficient of each soil separate can be characterized by some probability density functions: fCl(λ), fSi(λ), fSa(λ), for clay, silt and sand separates, respectively. The main goal of the work is to recover/identify these functions with the use of back analysis based on both computational micromechanics and simulated annealing approaches. In other words, the following inverse problem is solved: given the measured overall thermal conductivities of composite soil find the probability density function f(λ) for each soil separate. For that purpose, measured thermal conductivities of 32 soils (of various fabric compositions) at saturation are used. Recovered functions f(λ) are then applied to the computational micromechanics approach; predicted conductivities are in a good agreement with laboratory results.