Alina Trojanowska, Danuta Zarzycka, Magdalena Brodowicz-Król, Arkadiusz Jędrzejewski and Anna Wiktor
Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards compulsory immunization of their children.
Material and methods. The research was conducted with the survey questionnaire among 110 randomly chosen parents aged 18-40 whose infants were inpatients at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin.
Results. The study revealed that parents were poorly informed about the age of the first vaccination of their infant, compulsory and recommended vaccines, combined vaccines, contraindications for vaccination and adverse reactions following immunization. More than 50% of the parents had a rather positive attitude towards vaccination. However, one fifth admitted that they had seen campaigns which presented immunization of children as harmful. The most popular opinion among the respondents was that compulsory and recommended vaccinations for children should be given only against the most dangerous diseases. The majority of parents considered vaccinations to be safe and only a small percentage of parents were against immunizing their children due to possible health complications. Most of the parents were willing to immunize their children with all the compulsory vaccines and only several recommended ones (as they are not free of charge). Many of them declared they would choose combined vaccines.
Conclusions. Attitudes of parents towards immunization of children varied in the studied group. We concluded that parents were generally poorly informed about immunization of infants. The fact that knowledge about vaccinations may influence parents’ future decisions to protect their children against numerous infectious diseases calls for intensified education on the subject.
Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Ślusarska, Beata Dobrowolska, Alina Deluga, Alina Trojanowska and Elżbieta Bartoń
Introduction. In the subject literature there were five conceptual dimensions of empathy defined which were specified as a human trait, the basis of professional work, communication process, a manifestation of concern and the special relations. Empathy is the essence of understanding the other person in nursing. The empathic competences have a significant meaning for building caring and therapeutic relations in the work of nurses.
Aim. An indication of the essence of empathy in nursing in the aspect of theoretical assumptions and practical activities together with its selected empirical determinants.
Method. Topic and unsystematic review of literature looking at the last 30 years. The analysis carried out by the authors of the research included 55 sources.
Results. The study of empathy in nursing quite often used the concept formulated by Neuman team and a definition of empathy coined by Mercer and Reynolds, resulting from the concept : “Empathy involves ability (…) (a) to understand the perspective of patient’s situation and feelings and related meanings; (b) conveying information about understanding patient’s state and checking their determinants; and (c) to act within the closeness agreement with a patient in the way consistent with the therapeutic assumptions. Research studies indicate that nurses in general have quite high levels of empathy which positively influences the process of communication with patients and their families and dealing with patients who have psychosocial problems.
Summary. Empathy model most often used in nursing is based on the relations in the communication process. Empathy has positive influence over the quality of relations between nurses and patients, as well as the quality of nursing care. The empathic competences of nurses require system education and professional development with use of training and other active forms.
Anna Bednarek, Anna Bodajko-Grochowska, Danuta Zarzycka, Andrzej Emeryk and Elżbieta Cichosz
Introduction. The physical activity of adolescents forms an important aspect of their normal development and the prevention of lifestyle diseases.
Aim. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of physical activity of adolescents on the prevention of lifestyle diseases.
Material and method. The study covered a sample of 135 students from a secondary school in Zamość, Poland, was conducted in 2016, and used the diagnostic survey method. The research tool was the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in its Polish adaptation (the abridged version) and a survey questionnaire developed by the authors.
Results. More than half of the respondents (63.70%) engaged in sports activities in addition to PE classes at school, usually choosing team sports. According to the IPAQ key, 40.74% of the students demonstrated a high level of physical activity, 39.26% a moderate level, and 20% an insufficient level. The students were of the view that regular physical activity is of substantial importance in the prevention of diabetes (12.66% of the boys; 28.57% of the girls; p=0.037). At the same time, it was found not to have any major effect on the prevention of obesity, cancers, diseases of the musculoskeletal system or cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusions. The majority of the students declared that they regularly engaged in physical activity outside of school. According to the IPAQ assessment, the physical activity of adolescents remains at a high level, which may be considered as a positive indicator for the prevention of lifestyle diseases.
Barbara Ślusarska, Danuta Zarzycka, Anna Majda and Beata Dobrowolska
Introduction. The ongoing process of globalisation is contributing to the reconfiguration of social behaviour, even in small and relatively stable communities. The increased migration of people has led to more-varied groups of patients. The provision of nursing care which is consistent with a given culture, and adjusted to the particular needs of its recipient, is becoming a necessity. The development of cultural competence in the nurse's education, aimed at responding to the needs and demands of the global community, constitutes a current challenge for nursing.
Aim. The aim of this paper is to describe the assumptions put forward within the selected theoretical models of transcultural nursing, the nurses' cultural competences arising from them, and the possibility of their scientific evaluation.
Method. A non-systematic review of the literature based on the thematic selection of content and authors.
Results. The paper presents four basic theories and theoretical models of transcultural nursing which are well described in the literature on nursing, i.e. theories by M. Leininger, L. Purnell, J. Campinha-Bacote, J.N. Giger and R.E. Davidhizar, and their related cultural competences. The theoretical models constitute a foundation for the provision of nursing care to various populations, providing resources to overcome obstacles and challenges in situations where nurses care for patients with various cultural backgrounds. The article also presents the most important tools for the assessment of cultural competences based on the basic theoretical models of transcultural nursing.
Conclusions. Cultural competences in nursing set the direction for investment in self-development for both nurses-theorists and nursing practitioners. Understanding the components of cultural competences and their assessment plays an important and necessary role in the implementation of the concept of multiculturalism in nursing.
Katarzyna Dońka, Marlena Suwała, Danuta Zarzycka, Agnieszka Sobolewska-Samorek and Violetta Paździor
Introduction. Currently in Poland there is significant differentiation of parents’ attitudes towards vaccinating children. As a consequence, the number of unvaccinated children grows steadily by about 40 percent each year.
Aim. Getting to know parents’ attitudes and their causes in relation to immunization based on the analysis of publications on this topic.
Material and methods. Selection of publications for analysis was based on criteria of systematic review covering the last 10 years, cataloged in the following databases: Polish Medical Library, Google Scholar and Pubmed. The base searches were carried out according to the key words: protective vaccinations, parents’ attitudes, implementation of the vaccination calendar, immunization, vaccination, parental refusal of vaccines. As many as 32 publications were used in the study.
Results. Vaccine knowledge of parents determines their attitude towards vaccination, which influences the implementation of primary and extended vaccinations in children. Implementation of the Protective Vaccination Program remains high in Poland, but the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children is systematically growing. Among the many reasons for the refusal of vaccination in children, the most often in literature there were those indicated by barriers of a religious, personal and philosophical nature, security and knowledge on this subject.
Conclusions. Low level of parents’ knowledge, both general and specific, about vaccinations is the most common barrier in the implementation of mandatory vaccinations.
Agnieszka Chrzan-Rodak, Barbara Ślusarska, Grzegorz Nowicki, Marlena Ogórek, Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Niedorys and Ewelina Dziedzic
Introduction. Social competence is a soft skill that allows, among other things, for better communication with the patient, establishing and maintaining a therapeutic relationship and motivation of the patient. Social competence is a guarantee of care quality and a high level of satisfaction of the patient and his or her family, when it comes to the care provided. Social competence also has a positive impact on nurses, because it is a factor protecting them from burning out, and facilitating cooperation in the therapeutic team.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the level of social competence of professionally active nurses as well as to determine relationship between social competence and selected socio-demographic and work-related factors.
Material and methods. The present study included 291 nurses from the economically active population, aged from 23 to 63 years. Diagnostic survey and Social Competence Questionnaire by Anna Matczak (SCQ) were used in this study.
Results. As many as 37.8% of participating nurses demonstrated high levels of social competence (7th-10th sten) in intimate situations. Average levels (5th-6th sten) were characteristic for 40.5% of respondents in social exposure situations. When it comes to social competence in situations requiring assertiveness they were typically at average level (5th-6th sten) with 39.9% of nurses fitting this score. The overall result for social competence of nurses was low (36.1% of respondents) and average (34.4%). Place of residents and the postgraduate education were among the socio-demographic factors that determined significantly higher levels of social competence among nurses.
Conclusions. Nurses represent low and average levels of social competence. There is a further need for research on social competence among nurses and implementation of training programs that will help them develop higher levels social skills.