The Yampil Region represents a concentration of densely populated barrow cemeteries. Some 156 mounds figure in the available cartographic studies, which are the basis of spatial analysis presented below. The aforementioned therefore shall involve an examination of parameters for the localisation of tumuli in respect to altitude, terrain surface incline, direction of exposition and distance from waterways and watershed ridges as well as an analysis of visibility for selected sites, which shall describe preferences in respect to the chosen place of construction.
This article presents the results of analyses of relics made out of wood that were discovered during the investigation of the Yampil Barrow Complex (Ukraine, Vinnitsa Oblast) in the period 2010-2015 in respect to the graves of Eneolithic communities, Yamnaya culture, Catacomb culture, Noua culture and the Iron Age. The research has documented a process of the selection of wood used in funerary rituals in the 4th to 2nd mill. BC and the choice of tree species present in stenothermal climax forests (Quercus sp., Fraxinus sp.).
The article describes an attempt to identify the raw material of the organic layers - mats identified within the roofs and floors of the graves in the Yampil Barrow Cemetery Complex. The use of gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy combined with microscopic analysis of the extracted “mat” sections significantly supplements our knowledge in the field of weaving of the studied communities.
Ancient DNA was analyzed in altogether 28 Late Eneolithic and Bronze Age human skeletons form 4 sites in southern Ukraine. More than 0,3% of human DNA was preserved only in 13 skeletons. The results of our analyses provide evidence that recovery of DNA molecules suitable for genetic analyses is more dependent on the specificity of the archaeological site and is not strongly correlated with particular environmental factors.
The paper presents the results of excavations and analytical studies regarding the taxonomic classification of a funeral site associated with the societies of ‘barrow cultures’ of the north-western Black Sea Coast in the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The study discusses the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya and Noua cultures.
This study discusses the issue of ‘animal deposits’ in funerary practices of early barrow communities settling the Black Sea steppe and forest-steppe in the 4rd/3nd-2nd millennium. The focus of analytical studies is directly on the Yampil Barrow Cemetery Complex situated along the left bank of the Dniester, between the Murafa and Markivka rivers, or what is the Yampil Region (Vinnitsa Oblast) now. The chorological system developed by N.Ya. Merpert in his “Yamnaya Cultural-Historical Area” places this area within the Southwestern Variant (between the Southern Bug and Danube rivers) as the Yampil (Podolia) territorial centre. From the perspective of the research programme exploring the ‘bio-cultural border land between the West and East of Europe’, the Yampil Barrow Cemetery Complex is of special scholarly interest because of its western most location on the Dniester route of exchange for cultural patterns developed by communities settling the drainage basins of the Black and Baltic seas. The investigations followed the excavations of 23 barrows between 1984 and 2014.
The article presents the results of magnetometric surveys carried out in the village of Pridnistryanske on two barrow sites. In the site 1, the principal objectives were to capture the course of barrow ditches - not covered by the excavations - and investigate the space between the mounds. On site 2 relying on photographs was a group of nearby barrows selected for geophysical investigations.
The paper presents δ13C and δ15N isotope content measurements in human bones from 16 graves, being part of the Yampil Barrow Complex. From the results, conclusions may be drawn about the diet of barrow builders and users. It was based on vegetable foodstuffs and characterised by a varied share of terrestrial animal meat, depending on the period. High δ13C values suggest a share of C4-type plants in the diet, possibly millet.
The paper discusses the 2010-2015 studies of the radiocarbon chronology of Podolia ‘barrow cultures’ on the left bank of the middle Dniester. The studies have relied on series of 14C dates for the Klembivka 1, Pidlisivka 1, Porohy 3A and Prydnistryanske 1 sites determined in Kyiv and Poznań laboratories. They are the first attempt to construct a regional (‘Yampil’) radiocarbon scale for ‘Early Bronze’ funerary rites (4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC) as practised by barrow builders - the communities of the Tripolye and Yamnaya cultures - and the secondary barrow users - the designers of necropolises located on barrows - belonging to the Catacomb, Babyno and Noua cultures.
The paper presents excavation results and analytical studies concerning the taxonomic classification of a funerary site identified with the communities of the early ‘barrow cultures’ settling the north-western Black Sea Coast in the 4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC. The study focuses on the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya, Catacomb and Babyno cultures.