Introduction. There was no transplantation program in Montenegro until 2012. On the other hand, there were 93 patients with transplanted kidney. These transplantations were performed abroad; 15% in areas of black organ markets (India, Pakistan, Russian Federation). Beside the ethical problems, these transplantations carried a high risk of complications.
Methods. Our health system had to ensure solution for patients with terminal organ failure. Preparation of all neccessary conditions for the beginning of transplantation program in Montenegro started in 2006 with different activities including public, legal, medical, educational and international cooperation aspects.
Results. The first kidney transplantation from living donor in Montenegro was preformed on September 25th, 2012. In the period from 2012 until now 23 kidney transplantations from living related donor were performed and one kidney transplantation from deceased donor in the Clinical Center of Montenegro. In the a two year-follow-up period, all patients to whom kidney transplantation was performed are in a good condition and without serious complications in posttransplant period.
Conclusion. Development of the transplantation program allowed controlled transplantation and safety of patients. Our next steps are development of deceased organ donor transplantation and achievement of higher rate of deceased donor organ transplantation and individualization of immunosuppressive therapy.