The Changes in the Functional Urban Region in the New Socio-Economic Conditions in Poland. The Case of Toruń
This article attempts to determine the general tendency of changes of functioning of urban regions in the new socio-economic conditions in Poland. The functional connections resulted from an intensively and relatively permanent flow of population, which functions as foundation of identification of the urban region in that study. The paper presents the results of empirical examinations of the functional urban region of Toruń conducted in 70s, 80s, and presently. On that basis explation is presented on how the transformation of the economic system with all consequences influenced on the modification of developed and relatively stable city-surroundings relations. Additionally the article is aimed at recognizing the new determinants of urban regions development in Polish conditions.
The Eastern and the Western Cuiavia - One Region, Two Development Lines
Cuiavia is one of the oldest historical regions in Poland characterized by diverse physical and geographical conditions, as well as different administrative and historical past. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of historical and administrative divisions, as well as diverse socio-economic and political transformations that in a significant way influenced the diversity of social and economical features of Eastern and Western Cuiavia. Against such a background different development directions will be discussed.
Dominik Domin, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski and Daniela Szymańska
Evaluation of Conditions Concerning the Development of Tourism. Investigation into the Basin of the Parsęta River
The article presents the results of multidimensional evaluation of conditions concerning the development of tourism in rural areas of Parsęta basin. For the purpose the synthetic measure has been applied in reference to 27 variables divided into two groups: suitable for tourism or investing.
Having conducted the analysis of the selected variables, the investigated area was divided into three regions: the seaside at the North with very good conditions for the development of the touristic function as its core function, the central region, highly diversified with only moderate touristic capabilities, and finally the southern region, the lake district, with adequate features for the development of tourism.
Rural Areas in Poland in The Context of Changes in Population Age Structure in 1996, 2001 and 2006
The article presents changes in the rural age structures in Poland as observed in the years 1996, 2001 and 2006. The changes in population numbers are analysed with respect to age groups, the aging index and the old-age rate. Regarding its spatial scope, the article covers rural areas in Poland and the basic territorial units it uses are rural communes and the rural parts of mixed rural-urban communes that altogether amount to 2,171 units (as of 2006). The obtained results are discussed in a broader context of urban as well as countrywide age structures.
Daniela Szymańska, Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska and Beata Hołowiecka
Polish Towns and the Changes in Their Areas and Population Densities
This article presents the spatial and population density changes in Polish towns in the years 1960-2003. The assumed time frame allowed identifying area changes for a complete set of towns in different socio-economic conditions: the period of intense industrialisation, the economic crisis of the 1980s, the period of economic transition and finally in the years of a market economy. The investigation revealed that the trend shown by changes and the size of a town as measured by the number of its population are distinctly interrelated. It also demonstrated a much stronger dynamics of changes in the first subperiod, i.e. years 1960--1985, followed by a phase of relative stabilization (compared with the previous period) after the year 1980 (mainly of the spatial changes). Moreover, change intensity and change trends observed for the urban areas and population densities vary considerably in terms of space.
Daniela Szymańska, Stefania Środa-Murawska and Jadwiga Biegańska
Germany - Two Demographically Different States?
The paper is an attempt of an answer how belonging to different political, economical and cultural structures has influenced diverse population processes and structures and their spatial diversity. As an example to the research of these phenomena there was chosen Germany that until 1990 were two separated socio-political and economical formations (the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany FRG). This state, with a population number about 82 millions presently, as it turns out - besides passage of time - is characterized all the time by some diversity of procreation behaviors, population processes and structures in the Eastern (Ost) and the Western part (West) of Germany. It is claimed, the structures are going to some similarities, but the 15 years period (1990-2005) was too short to level all stated demographical differences and trends (1).
This article aims to identify the scale of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Polish towns as representative of sustainable building. The study area is investigated from the perspective of challenges arising from the current policy in the EU. The article indicates that, given the age of public buildings in Poland, the best way to implement the concept of sustainable building is to improve their present stock. The modernisation of public buildings is discussed in terms of project location, project value, sources of funding (including EU funds), and the use of buildings undergoing modernisation. According to the research findings, the implementation of the sustainable building concept is determined by both, exogenous factors (EU directives and domestic laws, etc.) and endogenous ones (e.g. human resources and their quality)
Daniela Szymańska, Stefania Środa-Murawska, Karolina Świderska and Czesław Adamiak
Internal Migration in Germany in 1990 And 2005
The article seeks to answer the questions concerning the possibility of identifying regular patterns within internal migration in the towns and rural areas of the Federal Republic of Germany as well as factors contributing to regional variations in the process. The research involves 439 German counties (Kreise) and compares data on internal migration in the country in the years 1991 and 2005, i.e. from its reunification until the year 2005. The 15-year period of functioning of one reunited state has been assumed sufficient for capturing some regularities and trends.
The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.
This article refers to the analysis and the evaluation of permanent migration as observed in rural areas of Poland, especially in peri-urban areas of the Polish cities between the years 1995 and 2011. The article covered all 2,173 rural and rural-urban (excluding urban parts) gminas in the country. In the article there were shown what are the migration volumes and dynamics in rural areas and what is the situation of large cities’ peri-urban areas in terms of permanent migration.