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  • Author: Daniela Pop Gjorceva x
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Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland


Background. Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour.

Case report. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date.

Conclusions. The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland.

Open access
Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Breast Cancer – First Experience/ Детекција На Сентинелни Лимфни Јазли Кај Карцином На Дојка – Први Искуства


Introduction: Breast cancer accouns for 22.9% of all cancers in women and 13.7% of cancer deaths. Positive axillary lymphnodes (ALN) predict the development of distant metastases. The status of the sentinel lymphnode (SLN) is crutial for the treatment selection.

Aim: To determine the benefits of SLN detection in patients with breast cancer. Material and methodology: 38 female patients (pts), age 44 ± 12 years, with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, without enlarged ALN on ultrasound (US), were included. SLN detection was performed using gamma camera and gamma detection probe after periareolar subcutaneous and/or peritumoral injection of (99m-Technetium-SENTISCINT). Blue dye was administered 20 min before the operation. SLN was extirpated and ex tempore histopathology was performed.

Results: Ex tempore SLN evaluation was negative and the lymphatic pathways preserved in 28/38 (74%) pts. In 10/38 (26%) pts SLN was positive, followed by radical surgery. In 3/28 ex tempore negative patients, histopathological analysis showed metastatic involvement (false negative). In 3/10 ex tempore positive patients micro metastases 0,2-2 mm were detected. 12 pts had 2 SLN, 8/12 (66%) had negative and 4/12 (34%) had positive SLN. 3 pts had a rare double drainage to axilla and a. mammaria int.

Conclusion: Our results confirm that SLN detection technique is non-invasive, safe and reliable and should be incorporated into the guidelines for breast cancer pts (T1-2 N0 M0). The most reliable option for colloid application is the combined technique of periareolar and peritumoral injection. Patients with drainage to a. mammaria interna should be selected for adjuvant protocols.

Open access
Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method



Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion.

Materials and method

The study included 30 examinees, 24–74 years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity (PBI).

99mTc-MIBI tissue muscle perfusion scintigraphy of lower limbs evaluates tissue perfusion in resting condition “rest study” and after workload “stress study”, through quantitative parameters: Inter-extremity index (for both studies), left thigh/right thigh (LT/RT) left calf/right calf (LC/RC) and perfusion reserve (PR) for both thighs and calves.


In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Indexes ranged for LT/RT in rest study 0.91-1.05, in stress study 0.92-1.04. LC/RC in rest 0.93-1.07 and in stress study 0.93-1.09. The examinees older than 50 years had insignificantly lower perfusion reserve of these parameters compared with those younger than 50, LC (p=0.98), and RC (p=0.6).


This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.

Open access