Background. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) associated with colorectal cancer risk in long-standing diseases. In order to assess the colonic mucosa and to discover dysplastic or neoplastic lesions, advanced endoscopic techniques are needed. Such techniques are detailed in this review: chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE).
Aim. The aim of the review is to describe and establish the clinical impact of advanced endoscopic techniques, that could be used in IBD patients’examination in order to assess mucosal healing, microscopic inflammation, dysplasia or neoplasia.
Materials and Methods. A literature research about new endoscopic approaches of patients with IBD was made.
Results. A lot of studies have been performed to reveal which imaging technique might be used for IBD surveillance. Regarding dysplasia or neoplasia detection and mucosal healing or inflammation assessment, CE proved to be superior to white light endoscopy (WLE), while NBI and AFI did not show an encouraging result. I-SCAN did not improve the colonoscopy quality while FICE has been used in a few studies. CLE could be used to characterize a lesion, providing the same results as conventional histology.
Conclusion. At the moment, CE is the only technique which has been included in guidelines for IBD surveillance. CLE can be used to assess any lesion detected with WLE during surveillance, while the other imaging techniques require more studies to determine their efficacy or inefficacy.