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  • Author: Daniela Esian x
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Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that most frequently affects children, and its treatment involves intensive chemotherapy, which might interfere with the normal development of dental tissues. The aim of our study was to measure the incidence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasia in children diagnosed with ALL treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-95 (ALL-BFM-95) protocol during the complete remission phase. Two groups of children between 8-12 years of age were investigated: Group 1 consisted of 36 children with ALL, and Group 2 of 58 control age-matched children. The decay-missing-filling index for the deciduous teeth (DMFT) and the presence of hypoplasia in the first permanent molars (MH) or in both incisors and molars (MIH) were recorded. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that there were no differences between the groups regarding the DMFT values (p >0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of MH and MIH between groups (p <0.05). According to our results, chemotherapy was not responsible for the decay process, as there were no differences in DMFT indices between the groups, but the high incidence of MH and MIH in the ALL group indicates the need of a good dental care for these children in order to prevent future dental complications.

Abstract

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common digestive disorder, which occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach returns into the esophagus to some extent, reaching the mouth, thereby increasing the frequency of dental erosion and caries. Since saliva plays a huge role in oral homeostasis, it is important to examine the role of this parameter in the appearance of the above mentioned oral lesions. The aim of our study was evaluate the oral condition of children suffering from reflux disease and to assess the relationship between salivary pH and the incidence of dental erosion and caries. In this prospective study we examined 25 children diagnosed with GERD, referred for hospitalization. Bedside intra-oral examination (DMFT index, gingival index) and strip method pH value determination was performed. We observed that patients with low pH values had increased caries frequency, and dental erosion was also noticeable. Statistical significance was determined comparing the DMFT index in groups with different pH values. We concluded that the high number of erosions is closely related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, as a consequence of the low pH value, which represents the main cause of oral manifestations in GERD.

Abstract

Introduction: Pediatric Dentistry offers a completely different approach compared to that of adults especially in terms of patient cooperation, problems with growth and development and problems related to dental restoration in the context of a developing dentition.

Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of primary and secondary dental dystrophies among preschool and school-age children.

Material and Methods: The group of 113 subjects with ages between 3 and 11 years was selected from two primary and preschool education establishments from Târgu-Mures. Simultaneously with the clinical examination of dental surfaces, 150 questionnaires were distributed to the parents of the subjects. The dystrophies determined clinically were arranged in a certain category of number, form, volume and structure and were correlated with the answers to the questionnaires.

Results: According to the data most cases of dental dystrophies are represented by dental fluorosis followed by severe early childhood caries S-ECC, and in equal percentages are present dyschromia, imperfect amelogenesis, MIH hypomineralization, dental fusion, macrodontia and hyperdontia.

Conclusions: There are significant correlations between the primary dental dystrophies and factors that intervened during pregnancy and in the post-natal period, both critical periods for dental formation and development.