The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a circuit training program along with a maintenance program on muscular and cardiovascular endurance in children in a physical education setting. Seventy two children 10-12 years old from four different classes were randomly grouped into either an experimental group (n = 35) or a control group (n = 37) (two classes for each group). After an eight-week development program carried out twice a week and a four-week detraining period, the experimental group performed a four-week maintenance program once a week. The program included one circuit of eight stations of 15/45 to 35/25 seconds of work/rest performed twice. Abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 seconds test), upper-limbs muscular endurance (bent arm hang test), and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the development program, and at the end of the maintenance program. After the development program, muscular and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The gains obtained remained after the maintenance program. The respective values did not change in the control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the circuit training program was effective to increase and maintain both muscular and cardiovascular endurance among schoolchildren. This could help physical education teachers design programs that permit students to maintain fit muscular and cardiovascular endurance levels.
Daniel Mayorga-Vega, Jesús Viciana and Armando Cocca
Rafael Merino-Marban, Daniel Mayorga-Vega and Emilio Fernandez-Rodriguez
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m2) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.
Oscar Romero-Ramos, Emilio Fernández-Rodríguez, Rafael Merino-Marbán, Daniel Mayorga-Vega and Robert Podstawski
Introduction. Cross triathlon is a sport consisting of three segments: swimming, off-road cycling, and running. Our study analyses the differences in performance between genders and changes in performance in selected age categories at the ITU Cross World Championships held between 2011 and 2016. Material and methods. During this period, a total of 1,933 triathletes were analysed (1,472 men and 461 women). Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the impact of sex differences and age-related changes on performance (time, percentage of time, and performance ratio) in swimming, cycling, running, and total race. Results. The age groups with the highest level of participation were persons aged 40-44 and 45-49 years among men and women, respectively. With regards to performance in the different age groups, in men and women, its high level was maintained between 25 and 49 years, and it decreased significantly from the age of 50-54. In men, the best results in cycling and total race time were obtained in the 30-34 age group and in swimming and running in the 40-44 group. Women obtained the best results in running in the 25-29 age group, in cycling in the 30-34 group, and in swimming and total race time in the 35-39 group. Conclusions. The results of the study have confirmed that there is a demand for sports in 40+ age groups. As for performance in the different age groups, it was on a high level between 25 and 49 years and decreased significantly from the age of 50-54 onwards. According to these results, the sports training of these triathletes should be oriented so that they obtain their best results between 30 and 35 years of age.