Contributions to the distribution and ecology of Carex hordeistichos Vill. in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Current and historical occurrence as well as habitat requirements of Carex hordeistichos in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are presented. The study is based on the revision of herbarium specimens from 25 herbaria and a field survey carried out during 2004-2009. Altogether, 195 sites were documented in the Czech Republic, exclusively in the Moravia region. Recent occurrence was confirmed at only four localities (2% of sites), therefore the status of threat was confirmed - the species is critically endangered. In Slovakia, 184 localities of the species were recorded in total; 34 sites were found in period 1975-1999 and 35 sites were confirmed recently (19% of sites recorded), but only 6 in the Pannonia (3% of sites). The number of localities was stable over the last 35 years, therefore, we re-evaluated the IUCN status of C. hordeistichos in Slovakia. The species is now assessed in the category vulnerable - VU. Results of the study are summarised in the maps of historical and actual species distribution. C. hordeistichos usually occurred in various wet grassland communities and it had no well-defined coenotic relationships. On the basis of our knowledge, we consider C. hordeistichos as a facultative halophyte.
Distribution and Communities of Crypsis Aculeata and Heleochloa Schoenoides in Slovakia
The distribution and communities of two annual grasses Crypsis aculeata and Heleochloa schoenoides were studied in Slovakia during 2003-2007. Herbarium and field data were used to reconstruct the occurrence of both taxa. A strong decline in C. aculeata localities was observed. This was mainly due to the destruction of periodically flooded saline habitats. By contrast, the occurrence of H. schenoides was changed only slightly. This species survives in secondary habitats (rural roads, field margins, field depressions). Point maps of historical and recent distribution are presented. Halophile vegetation of Crypsis aculeata and Heleochloa schoenoides has been sampled with the adapted Braun-Blanquet method. All collected relevés have been classified using the JUICE software. The results showed that the Crypsidetum aculeate Wenzl 1934 community is missing now in Slovakia, but Heleochloetum schoenoidis (Soó 1933) Topa 1939 was still recorded at a few sites. However, the community contained many ruderal plant species.
Revision of Historical and Current Distribution of Pholiurus Pannonicus (Host.) Trin. in Slovakia
Historical and current occurrence of the obligate halophyte Pholiurus pannonicus was studied in Slovakia during the period 2003-2009. The species had been occurring in the Podunajská nížina Lowland and the Východoslovenská nížina Lowland; 30 localities were found in total. Recently the number of localities has decreased markedly and the species was confirmed only in the Podunajská nížina Lowland. We documented only seven localities during the study. Therefore, we confirmed that Pholiurus pannonicus belongs to the critically endangered plants of Slovak flora.
Beckmannia Eruciformis (L.) Host in Slovakia - Distribution, Ecology and Coenotic Affinity: Dedicated to the memory of Ján Bogoly (1951 - 2011)
The historical and recent distribution, ecology and phytosociology of perennial grass Beckmannia eruciformis was studied in Slovakia between 2002 and 2010. Altogether 22 natural and two secondary sites with presence of the species were found from published sources, herbaria and field research. Localities of its native occurrence have been concentrated in Eastern Slovakia (Východoslovenská nížina Lowland from the settlement of Streda nad Bodrogom to the villages of Pribeník and Biel). Secondary sites were found in Western Slovakia (Podunajská nížina Lowland; the surroundings of Sládkovičovo town and Jaslovské Bohunice village). The relatively massive reduction of Beckmannia eruciformis localities was recorded in the seventies and eighties of the last century; it was related to massive land reclamation and alterations in the water regime of river alluvia. Recently only seven localities were found. Permanent occurrence was confirmed only in two localities (Malý Horeš, Strážne). In those cases Beckmannia eruciformis has created relatively large populations including some thousands of individuals. All other recent occurrences were temporary (Streda nad Bodrogom, Keresztúr farmstead, Horešské lúky Nature Reserve, Veľký Horeš, Pribeník). Moreover, they were relatively poor in the number in individuals and are acutely threatened by anthropogenic changes of environmental conditions. According to our results and by applying the IUCN criteria, we propose to modify the threat category of the species from critically endangered (CR) to endangered (EN) in Slovakia. Occurrence of the association Beckmannietum eruciformis and the alliance Beckmannion eruciformis, was also not confirmed for Slovakia during our research. We believe that the association was not present in the past either. Recently, Beckmannia eruciformis was found in the stands of Oenanthion aquaticae (Phragmito-Magnocaricetea) and Potentillion anserinae (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea) in two localities (Malý Horeš, Strážne) during our study. The species composition of the mentioned alliances is fundamentally influenced by the ecological conditions of sites, mainly by water regime during the vegetation period. According to our knowledge, the most favourable conditions for Beckmannia eruciformis are the following: short-term and low floods in the spring, decrease of the water table at the beginning of summer and relatively high level of groundwater during next part of vegetation period. On the contrary, the species may not appear on the site in case of unfavourable weather conditions (dry years).
Between 2011 and 2016 we surveyed 42 sites of coastal salt marshes of Croatia. We confirmed the occurrence of several rare and endangered plant species. Ten of them are included in the Red List of Croatia; critically endangered (CR) Eleocharis uniglumis, Triglochin barrelieri and T. maritima, endangered (EN) Carex divisa and C. extensa, vulnerable (VU) Parapholis incurva, Salsola soda and Suaeda maritima and category data deficient (DD) Limonium virgatum and Puccinellia festuciformis. We also report localities of other rare taxa of salt marshes like Allium telmatum, Tripolium pannonicum subsp. tripolium, Juncus gerardii, Parapholis filiformis, Plantago cornuti, Samolus valerandi and Scorzonera parviflora. Several plant species are endangered. Their habitats, salt marshes were converted into fields or destructed by construction for developing tourist infrastructure. Today only a part of the remained areas are under protection.
Historical and current occurrence of halophytic species Carex divisa was studied in Slovakia during 2003–2014. It is known only in the Podunajská nížina Lowland, SW Slovakia, where 19 sites were found in total including historical and recent locations. Recently, the number of records decreased markedly and we confirmed only 9 localities. Due to the sharp reduction in the number of sites and appropriate habitats, Carex divisa is re-evaluated as endangered (EN) plant species of the Slovak flora.
Historical and current occurrence of halophytic-ruderal species Hordeum geniculatum was studied in Slovakia during 2003 - 2010. The species occurred only in the Podunajská nížina Lowland, where 16 sites were found in total including historical and recent locations. Recently, the number of sites decreased markedly and we confirmed only four localities. Due to the sharp decrease in the number of sites and proper habitats, Hordeumgeniculatum is re-evaluated as endangered (EN) plant of Slovak flora.
Historical and current occurrence of obligate halophyte Artemisia santonicum subsp. patens was studied in Slovakia during 2001-2012. The species has been occurred in the Podunajska nižina Lowland and the Vychodoslovenska nižina Lowland; 35 localities were found in total. The data from the Zahorska nižina Lowland is erroneous. Recently the number of localities decreased markedly and the species was confirmed only in 17 sites. Most of them (16) is situated in the Podunajska nižina Lowland and a single one has been confirmed in the Vychodoslovenska nižina Lowland. Based on our data, Artemisia santonicum subsp. patens belongs to the endangered (EN A2ac+4c) plants of the Slovak flora according to IUCN categories and criteria, because 50 % of locations were destroyed and survival prognosis is unfavorable for the most recent populations.
Two new and one historical site of Cyperus glomeratus were discovered in SW Slovakia along the left bank of the river Danube. After 60 years, this is the second record of the species in the country. We provide details about the historical and current distribution of C. glomeratus in Slovakia based on herbarium revision and field survey on the Slovak section of the river Danube. According to the phytosociological data collected from the new locality (Čenkov) and from the confirmed historic locality (Štúrovo), the stands with C. glomeratus were identified with less developed, ruderalized form of the association Cyperetum micheliani.
Distribution, morphological types and coenotic affinity of Gagea bohemica in Slovakia was studied during 2008-2011. Revision of herbarium material showed presence of three taxa in the flora: 1) subsp. bohemica, 2) subsp. bohemica var. stenochlamydea and 3) subsp. saxatilis. Taxonomic status of var. stenochlamydea is uncertain and requires further research. In total, 42 localities of G. bohemica sensu lato were documented. Nominate subsp. bohemica (including var. stenochlamydea) predominated and it was recently confirmed at 21 localities. These current sites represent about 50% of all known sites, therefore we re-assessed the status of G. bohemica in the Slovak Red List and we proposed the IUCN category EN (endangered) for this taxon. Subsp. saxatilis was found as new to Slovakia. The taxon occurred only at single locality (Vinosady) and it was not confirmed recently. We assessed it as data deficient (DD).