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Open access

Danica Tiodorović and Miljan Krstić

Abstract

Cylindromas are benign appendage tumors mainly found on the scalp, but they can occur on any hair-bearing skin. Mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 16q12–13, are responsible for multiple cylindromas, which are usually inherited in an autosomal dominant way, as in familial cylindromatosis and Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. The latter is characterized by the presence of multiple cylindromas, multiple trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. Based on genetic studies and the identification of heterozygous mutations in the same CYLD gene in familial cylindromatosis, multiple familial trichoepitheliomas, and the Brooke–Spiegler syndrome, it is suggested that these three conditions have the same genetic basis and are phenotypic expressions of the same disease. The diagnosis of each of the tree conditions is based on the dominant tumor type: cylindroma in familiar cyindromas, trichoepithelioma in multiple familial trichoepitheliomas, or a variety of skin appendage tumors including cylindromas, spiradenomas and trichoepitheliomas in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. The onset of the disease is usually in the early adulthood, but may also occur in childhood or adolescence.

We report on two sisters, 37 and 43 years of age, with multiple cylindromas on the face and the scalp. Both patients reported that their mother also had multiple tumors on her head. Dermoscopy revealed arborizing vessels on a white-ivory or pink background, resembling dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinoma, though histopathological analysis revealed cylindroma.

In conclusion, in this study we report two cases of a very rare familial cylindromatosis, presenting with multiple benign cylidromas with dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinoma. All patients with multiple cylindromas in familial cylindromatosis should be counseled about increased risk for developing further tumors. Systemic and multidisciplinary approach with follow up is strongly recommended.

Open access

Andrija Jović, Nataša Vidović, Danijela Popović, Zorana Zlatanović, Slađana Cekić and Danica Tiodorović

Abstract

Combined nevi are melanocytic lesions composed of two or more distinct types of melanocytic populations within the same lesion. Different types of combined nevi may form bizarrely shaped, multicolored skin lesions, making them one of the greatest melanoma mimickers. We report a 48-year-old female patient with suspicious skin lesion in the left lumbar region. Clinically, there was an oval, slightly asymmetrical lesion measuring 6 x 4 mm, showing multiple colors and shades of brown and black. A dermoscopic examination revealed a brown-bluish coloration in the right part of the lesion, while a fine pigment network with perifollicular halo was found in the left part of the lesion, suggesting the diagnosis of a combined nevus. Histological examination showed a poorly circumscribed proliferation of dendritic melanocytes in the superficial and deep dermis and proliferation of melanocytes in the dermoepidermal junction. A surgical excision of the tumor was performed, in order to confirm the dermoscopic findings. In conclusion, dermoscopy is useful in differentiating combined nevi from other melanocytic lesions.

Open access

Hristina Kocić, Bojana Stamenković, Danijela Popović, Zorana Zlatanović, Tomislav Marković and Danica Tiodorović

Abstract

CREST syndrome represents a form of scleroderma where the progressive autoimmune reaction is mainly manifested by the main symptoms, which make this acronym: calcinosis cutis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and teleangiectasia. Among the first affected organs is the skin followed by the excessive fibrosis manifested by the deposition of collagen in dermis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) theory has been underlined as one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms and triggering factor in development of scleroderma. The present study was aimed at estimating the marker of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in plasma of patients with CREST syndrome having manifested symptoms of both Raynaud syndrome and positive ANA antibodies. The lipid peroxidation (MDA) level was significantly higher in the patients who had CREST syndrome and Raynaud syndrome for less than 10 years compared to the patients suffering from Raynoud syndrome for more than 10 years (p<0.05). Both groups were found to have a significant MDA level increase (p<0.001) compared to the control healthy subjects. In conclusion, the relationship between lipid peroxidation (MDA level) and Raynaud syndrome appearance may emphasize the role of ROS produced by the ischemia-reperfusion injury as an early pathogenetic mechanism in CREST scleroderma syndrome.

Open access

Danijela Popović, Andrija Jović, Danica Tiodorović, Nataša Vidović and Ivana Graovac

Abstract

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer and the most common type of tumor in the human population in general. Clinical variants of BCC include nodular, superficial, pigmented, morpheaform, cystic, metatypical types and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Giant BCC is a rare type of carcinoma, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of BCC. Most often they occur on the trunk. BCC belongs to the group of aggressive tumors, leading to the invasion of deeper tissues, and examples of metastasis of this type of tumor can be found in the reference literature. In this case report, we present a case of a 76-year-old female patient with a giant ulcerous form of basal cell carcinoma on the back.

Open access

Željko P. Mijušković, Lidija Kandolf-Sekulović, Danica Tiodorović, Miloš Nikolić, Marina Jovanović, Dušan Škiljević, Zorica Gajinov and Radoš D. Zečević