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Danica Krupová and Pavel Pavlenda

Abstract

This review paper summarises the development of forest monitoring in Europe and in Slovakia. Since 1986 Forest Research Institute has been performing monitoring activities at the systematic grid of 16×16 km on permanent monitoring plots of Level I (extensive monitoring) and since 1995 on 9 plots of II. Level (intensive monitoring), which is closely connected with programme ICP Forests and PMS Forests. However, during 1991-1992 monitoring on 1189 plots in the grid of 4×4 km in Slovakia was done by Lesoprojekt Zvolen, which was repeated during the last 10 years as a part of LHP (every year 1/10 territory). This paper describes briefly also surveys and monitoring activities of different monitoring systems, parameters, methods and the perspectives of monitoring of the forest condition

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Danica Krupová, Michal Bošeľa, Pavel Pavlenda and Slávka Tóthová

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to analyse temporal changes in chemism of atmospheric deposition in Slovakia. Two kinds of deposition, bulk and throughfall were considered and analysed for the period of 1996-2010. Data acquired from permanent monitoring plots (PMP) of Level II were used for this purpose. These plots were established as a part of the ICP Forests Programme. The changes in the composition of deposition were identified for the spruce and beech plots. The results were compared among three spruce plots, two beech plots and one mixed spruce-beech-fir plot. Precipitation pH was higher on the beech than on the spruce plots and during the spotted period increased on both spruce and beech plots. Depositions of cations decreased significantly on the spruce and beech plots in bulk deposition for all elements except for calcium. The significant decline of sulphur and ammonium nitrogen was found on both spruce and beech plots, but the highest decrease of sulphur deposition was found in throughfall precipitation (R2 = 0.75). The amount of nitrate nitrogen did not change during the study period.

Open access

Danica Krupová, Věra Fadrhonsová, Hana Pavlendová, Pavel Pavlenda, Slávka Tóthová and Vít Šrámek

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric depositions on the permanent monitoring plots of Level II of the ICP Forest programme in Czech and Slovak forest areas was described in this paper. The atmospheric bulk deposition of sulphur, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen from the years 2000–2016 were assessed and compared with the data obtained on European plots of this programme. The temporal developments of annual depositions in kg.ha−1.year−1 were determined by linear regression and displayed through maps. The most significant change during the reporting period was in the annual sulphur deposition, which was the statistically significant with rather sharp decrease on Slovak plots (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.68) and with milder decrease in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.23). There are small spatial and temporal differences in the deposition of the annual nitrate nitrogen depositions. The decrease was statistically more significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.53) than in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.30). The smallest changes were in annual depositions of ammonium nitrate, although the deposition was statistically significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.42). In the Czech Republic dropped only slightly over the whole territory (except in the Beskydy Mts.) during evaluated period. The temporal variations of polluting components revealed significant differences between developments of depositions on the different plots of both republics. The sulphur and nitrogen depositions in the Slovak and Czech Republic persistently ranking among the highest in Europe, what is caused by local and transboundary anthropogenic emission.