Protective effect of manganese in cadmium-induced hepatic oxidative damage, changes in cadmium distribution and trace elements level in mice
Oxidative tissue damage is considered an early sign of cadmium (Cd) toxicity and has been linked with carcinogenesis. Manganese(II) - at low doses, was found to act as a potent antioxidant against oxidative stress in different in vitro systems producing lipid peroxidation conditions. The present study investigates in vivo antioxidant effects of Mn2+ pretreatment in acute Cd intoxication with regard to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system and cadmium distribution in the tissues of mice. Four groups of male mice (n=7-8) were used: Cd group was injected sc a single dose of CdCl2 · 2 1/2 H2O (7 mg/kg b.w.); Cd+Mn group was treated ip with MnCl2 · 4H2O (20 mg/kg b.w.) 24 hours before Cd intoxication; Mn group received manganese treatment only; Control group received saline only. Twenty-four hours after Cd intoxication an increased lipid peroxidation (p<0.05), depleted GSH level (p<0.01), increased activity of GSH-Px (p<0.05) and inhibited CAT activity (p<0.01) were found in Cd-treated group compared to controls. Manganese(II) pre-treatment either completely prevented (LP, GSH, GSH-Px) or significantly attenuated (CAT) these changes. Manganese(II) treatment alone decreased LP, enhanced hepatic GSH level and had no effect on antioxidant enzymes compared to control group. A significant increase of Cd concentration in the liver and decreased Cd concentration in the kidneys and testes were found in Cd+Mn treated mice compared to Cd-only treated group. The effect of manganese may result from a different metallothionein induction in particular organs. Manganese(II) pretreatment attenuated the interference of cadmium with Ca homeostasis, the alteration in Zn and Cu levels remained mostly unaffected.