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Pavla Pekárová and Dana Halmová

Snow Water Equivalent Measurement and Simulation in Microbasins with Different Vegetation Cover

This paper deals with the formation of snowmelt-driven floods in two experimental microbasins located in Slovakia's highlands (300-400 m a.s.l) near the town of Považská Bystrica, Slovakia in March 2006. The first basin (Rybárik) encompasses an area of 0.119 km2 and is used primarily for agriculture; while the Lesný basin with its catchment area of 0.0864 km2 is characterized as a forested land. The maximal specific outflow from the Rybárik basin was observed on March 28, 2006, with 281.3 l s-1 km-2, peaking at 3 p.m. with 422 l s-1 km-2. In the Lesný basin, the maximum outflow was observed on March 29, 2006, with its peak of 523 l s-1 km-2 at noon. In the second part the long-term trend of snow water equivalent (SWE) modeled by the HBV-light rainfall-runoff model in the Rybárik and Lesný microbasins were evaluated. After the model verification, the daily values of SWE for the period 1965/66-2005/06 were calculated for Rybarik and Lesný microbasins. From the results it follows, that, after a temporal decline in the maxima of snow depth and of SWE in the 1990s, SWE started to increase in 2002 again. The historically highest values of SWE were simulated in both experimental microbasins in the winter season of 2005/06.

Open access

Pavla Pekárová, Branislav Pramuk, Dana Halmová, Pavol Miklánek, Stevan Prohaska and Ján Pekár

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to study spatial and temporal changes in the magnitude, duration and frequency of high flows in the Danube basin. A hydrological series of the mean daily discharges from 20 gauging stations (operated minimally since 1930) were used for the analysis of changes in the daily discharges. The high flow events were classified into three classes: high flow pulses, small floods, and large floods. For each year and for each class, the means of the peak discharges, the number and duration of events, and the rate of changes of the rising and falling limbs of the waves were determined.

The long-term trends of the annual time series obtained were analyzed and statistically evaluated. The long-term high flow changes were found to be different in three individual high flow classes. The duration of the category of high flow pulses is decreasing at 19 stations on the Danube and is statistically significant at the Linz, Vienna, Bratislava and Orsova stations. The frequency of the high flow pulses is increasing in all 20 stations. Also, the rising and falling rates of the high flow pulse category are increasing at the majority of the stations. The long-term trends of the selected characteristics of the small floods are very similar to the trends of the high flow pulses, i.e., the duration of small floods is decreasing, and their mean number per year is increasing. In the category of large floods the changes were not proved.

Open access

Veronika Bačová Mitková and Dana Halmová

Abstract

The study is focused on the analysis and statistical evaluation of the joint probability of the occurrence of hydrological variables such as peak discharge (Q), volume (V) and duration (t). In our case study, we focus on the bivariate statistical analysis of these hydrological variables of the Danube River in Bratislava gauging station, during the period of 1876-2013. The study presents the methodology of the bivariate statistical analysis, choice of appropriate marginal distributions and appropriate copula functions in representing the joint distribution. Finally, the joint return periods and conditional return periods for some hydrological pairs (Q-V, V-t, Q-t) were calculated. The approach using copulas can reproduce a wide range of correlation (nonlinear) frequently observed in hydrology. Results of this study provide comprehensive information about flood where a devastating effect may be increased in the case where its three basic components (or at least two of them) Q, V and t have the same significance.

Open access

Pavla Pekárová, Aleš Svoboda, Pavol Miklánek, Peter Škoda, Dana Halmová and Ján Pekár

Estimating Flash Flood Peak Discharge in Gidra and Parná Basin: Case Study for the 7-8 June 2011 Flood

We analyzed the runoff and its temporal distribution during the catastrophic flood events on river Gidra (32.9 km2) and Parná (37.86 km2) of the 7th June 2011. The catchments are located in the Small Carpathian Mountains, western Slovakia. Direct measurements and evaluation of the peak discharge values after such extreme events are emphasized in the paper including exceedance probabilities of peak flows and of their causal flash rainfall events. In the second part of the paper, plausible modeling mode is presented, using the NLC (Non Linear Cascade) rainfall-runoff model. Several hypothetical extreme flood events were simulated by the NLC model for both rivers. Also the flood runoff volumes are evaluated as basic information on the natural or artificial catchment storage.

Open access

Pavla Pekárová, Dana Halmová, Veronika Bačová Mitková, Pavol Miklánek, Ján Pekár and Peter Škoda

Abstract

In this paper we focused on the history of floods and extreme flood frequency analysis of the upper Danube River at Bratislava. Firstly, we briefly describe the flood marks found on the Danube River in the region of Bratislava, Slovakia, and provide an account of the floods’ consequences. Secondly, we analyzed the annual maximum discharge series for the period 1876-2012, including the most recent flood of June 2013. Thirdly, we compare the values of T-year design discharge computed with and without incorporating the historic floods (floods of the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 into the 138-year series of annual discharge peaks). There are unfortunately only a few historic flood marks preserved in Bratislava, but there are very important and old marks in neighbouring Hainburg and other Austrian cities upstream to Passau. The calculated T-year maximum discharge of the Danube at Bratislava for the period 1876-2010 without and with historic flood values have been compared. Our analysis showed that without incorporating the historic floods from the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 the 1000-year discharge calculated only with data from the instrumented period 1876- 2013 is 14,188 m3 s-1, and it is lower compared to the 1000-year discharge of 14,803 m3 s-1 when the three historic floods are included. In general, the T-year discharge is higher throughout the whole spectrum of T-year discharges (10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500-year discharge) when the three historic floods are included. Incorporating historic floods into a time series of maximum annual discharge seems to exert a significant effect on the estimates of low probability floods. This has important implications for flood managements and estimation of flood design discharge.