The paper demonstrates the applicability of X-ray microtomography (ìCT) to analysis of the results of shear strength examinations of clayey soils. The method of X-ray three-dimensional imaging offers new possibilities in soil testing. The work focuses on a non-destructive method of evaluation of specimen quality used in shear tests and mechanical behavior of soil. The paper presents the results of examination of 4 selected clayey soils. Specimens prepared for the triaxial test have been scanned using ìCT before and after the triaxial compression tests. The shear strength parameters of the soils have been estimated. Changes in soil structure caused by compression and shear failure have been presented as visualizations of the samples tested. This allowed for improved interpretation and evaluation of soil strength parameters and recognition of pre-existing fissures and the exact mode of failure. Basic geometrical parameters have been determined for selected cross-sections of specimens after failure. The test results indicate the utility of the method applied in soil testing.
The aim of this paper is to present an example of the material microstructure characterization with the use of X-ray micro-CT and nanoindentation measurements. Firstly, the current scope of application of the aforementioned techniques is provided within different fields of science. Then, background of each of the methods is presented. The methodology of X-ray micro-CT is described with the emphasis on the Beer’s law formulation. In addition, the basics of the nanoindentation technique are outlined and major formulas for the hardness and Young’s modulus calculation are given. Finally, example results for a concrete sample are presented. The microstructure of the selected material is firstly characterized in terms of geometry using the results from the microtomograhy measurements, e.g., porosity and attenuation profiles, pore and aggregate size distribution, shape factor of pores, etc. Next, the results of the nanoindentation tests are provided, namely the hardness and Young’s modulus versus the height of the sample. The influence of the number of tests and statistical analysis on the final results is underlined.
The article presents an application of X-ray microtomography for identification of the carbonation zone in concrete material. A concrete specimen subjected earlier to harsh environmental conditions is investigated. The material is firstly checked with the use of chemical corrosion indicators and then is subjected to microstructural analysis performed with the use of X-ray microtomography. Two different settings of scanning parameters are applied implying the image resolutions of approximately 14 μm per 1 pixel and about 7 μm per 1 pixel, respectively. The results obtained are then compared and analyzed. The depth of the carbonation zone is evaluated based on the attenuation curve. The paper highlights also the significance of the corrosion phenomenon in concrete structures. Details of the deterioration mechanisms in concrete are shortly presented.
The needle probe test, as a thermal conductivity measurement method, has become very popular in recent years. In the present study, the efficiency of this methodology, for the case of composite materials, is investigated based on the numerical simulations. The material under study is a two-phase composite with periodic microstructure of “matrix-inclusion” type. Two-scale analysis, incorporating micromechanics approach, is performed. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite considered is found by the solution of the appropriate boundary value problem stated for the single unit cell. Next, numerical simulations of the needle probe test are carried out. In this case, two different locations of the measuring sensor are considered. It is shown that the “equivalent” conductivity, derived from the probe test, is strongly affected by the location of the sensor. Moreover, comparing the results obtained for different scales, one can notice that the “equivalent” conductivity cannot be interpreted as the effective one for the composites considered. Hence, a crude approximation of the effective property is proposed based on the volume fractions of constituents and the equivalent conductivities derived from different sensor locations.
In the paper, the influence of different types of bedding and backfill soil surrounding underground sewage duct on its deformation was analysed. Impact of increased soil lateral pressure was examined by considering the construction of an embankment nearby the underground pipeline. Numerical computations of three different variants of bedding and backfill soil surrounding the pipe were carried out. Displacements and deformation of the pipe were calculated using the finite element method with adoption of elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model of soil. Subsequent stages of the construction were taken into account. Shear strength reduction method was applied to evaluate the factor of safety of the entire system. Finally, the results and conclusions were depicted.
In this work, the complex microstructure of the soil solid, at the microscale, is modeled by prescribing the spatial variability of thermal conductivity coefficient to distinct soil separates. We postulate that the variation of thermal conductivity coefficient of each soil separate can be characterized by some probability density functions: fCl(λ), fSi(λ), fSa(λ), for clay, silt and sand separates, respectively. The main goal of the work is to recover/identify these functions with the use of back analysis based on both computational micromechanics and simulated annealing approaches. In other words, the following inverse problem is solved: given the measured overall thermal conductivities of composite soil find the probability density function f(λ) for each soil separate. For that purpose, measured thermal conductivities of 32 soils (of various fabric compositions) at saturation are used. Recovered functions f(λ) are then applied to the computational micromechanics approach; predicted conductivities are in a good agreement with laboratory results.