Northern Red Oak is a tree species native to North America. In Polish flora it has status of invasive plants. In the years 2008-2011 autoecological studies were conducted aiming at examination on what type of soils the species tends to regenerate ie appearance of seedlings in the vicinity of maternal trees. In total 250 phytosociological relevés and 100 soil samples (400 soil subsamples) were collected. It was observed that majority stands (almost 80%) of Northern Red Oak occupy sites very strongly acid and strongly acid. In reference to pH in KCl results are a little different, however, sites with soil very strongly acid (pH = 4.1-5.0) and stronly acid (pH < 4.1) also predominate. The investigated soils were typified by very low values of magnesium (< 10 mg/1000 g), phosphorus (< 3 mg/100 g) and potassium (< 7 mg/100 g). Total nitrogen in studied sites dominated in two the lowest classes (> 0.25%). The sites of Q. rubra are rich in organic carbon. Almost 50% of all sites covers two highest classes of concentration of this element ie 4.0-8.0% and > 8.0%. Soils where seedlings of Northern Red Oak were encountered, were characterized by humus medium for mezotrophic and eutrophic broad-leaved forests and mixed coniferous forests - more than 60% had ratio of carbon and nitrogen CN > 25. In several sites this ratio reached 50. The lower values in case of content of calcium and loss on ignition dominate. The studies showed that soils on which species grows and also spontaneously regenerates are typical for coniferous and mixed coniferous forests, however, in natural range Q. rubra is component of deciduous forests. It could be associated with the fact of more frequent introduction of Northern Red Oak into poorer sites than the consequence of its habitat requirements.
An Attempt at Assessment of Alnetum Incanae Lüdi 1921 Transformations in the Skawica River Valley (The Beskid Żywiecki MTS)
The paper presents an attempt at assessment of Alnetum incanae LÜDI 1921 transformations in the Skawica River valley. The field studies were carried out in the whole Skawica valley. On the basis of phytosociological relevés, the participation of species which prefer riparian habitats, the number and cover of anthropophytes, including invasive plants, were analyzed. The presence of synanthropic sites was also taken into consideration. The research demonstrated that in the study area phytocoenoses of the Alnetum incanae association have primarily retained natural character, in spite of a noticeable influence of human impact. The results suggested that the vicinity of synanthropic sites does not eliminate natural components of phytocoenosis.
Environmental repercussion of subsidence reservoirs reclamation
Subsidence basins filled with water are being formed above exploitation fields also in woodland areas leading to changes in water relations simultaneously affecting creation of environmental islands characterized by higher biodiversity in comparison with adjacent areas.
Unfortunately, these types of water reservoirs from the legal point of view are considered mining damage and should thus be reclaimed. Reclamation usually consists in gravitational drainage and filling up with barren rock, appropriate relief forming and afforestation. So performed reclamation practices lead to negative effects both within the subsidence and in adjacent areas. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of reclamation based on filling subsidence with barren rock on changes in hydrology and biodiversity of nearby forest communities. For the purpose of the study two objects were selected: the existing water body and former water reservoir - at present filled with barren rock. Both are situated in Ślαskie voivodship (the territory of Mysłowice and Katowice). Within the two objects, hydrological studies at two sampling points in each of the objects and vegetation sampling were performed. The DCA of 12 transects (6 in each object) and statistical analyses of vegetation showed differences between two objects in species composition, especially due to higher abundance and coverage of invasive and expansive species in reclaimed areas. Chemical analyses showed high contamination of surface waters (by e.g. SO42-, Cl-, Na+) caused by waste deposition in barren rock and the negative effect of coal mine waters supplying the area of reclaimed reservoir.
In vegetation science including phytosociology, visual estimates of plant cover and point method belong to the common field method to record species composition and their abundance. Two methods were compared: Braun-Blanquet scale and point method using Levy bridge. A group of students performed measurements in five plots belonged to an oak-hornbeam forest Tilio-Carpinetum. It was revealed that there is a very high discrepancy in a observed number of species. Total mean numbers obtained are 13.4 and 31.2 for point method and Braun-Blanquet method respectively. However, there is the significant positive and medium correlation between two methods in terms of estimation of abundance of species. It can be concluded that point-method is not suitable for study of forest floor vegetation. It can be merged with other methods. Due to many repetitive measures, it can be helpful in learning of recognition of species.
Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec) in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.
The research was carried out in three steppe nature reserves in the Nida Basin (southern Poland) aiming at determine an impact of geomorphological conditions and spatial arrangement on selected parameters of life history of Adonis vernalis in the year 2007-2008. In each reserve 10 1-m2 permanent plots, using stratified-random sampling method, were established and frequency of particular developmental phases were noted in April and May. In 2007 and 2008 total 1145 and 1132 ramets were counted respectively. We observed negative relationships between density of clumps per 1 m2 and number of specific developmental phases and height of clumps. Phenology of Adonis vernalis shows distinct year-to-year changes what is probably connected with sensitivity of plants to weather fluctuations. Our study revealed that relations between ramets and density of clumps are similar independently on local biotopic conditions, relief structure, differences in abundance of population, and type of vegetation in neighbourhood.
In Poland there are three invasive species of the genus Solidago native to North America. In the years 2010-2015 field survey in five tows in Oswiecim Basin and its vicinity was performed which aimed to examine frequency, habitat preferences and basic parameters of populations of these species. Amongst invasive goldenrods S. canadensis (79 localities) and S. gigantea (74) prevailed in the study area and are much more frequent than S. graminifolia (8). Populations of goldenrods were not very abundant and did not occupy large area, however, there were populations exceeding 500 m2 and that had more than 500 ramets except for S. graminifolia which occur at low densities. The Canadian goldenrod S. canadensis tended to occur more frequently in ruderal and segetal habitats than S. gigantea whereas S. graminifolia was encountered only at fallows. Both S. gigantea and S. canadensis were reported to occur in wetland habitats and sometimes formed monospecific stands what prove negative influence on biodiversity.
Two species of mosses in relation to nitrogen metabolism were examined. This subject is little known in this group of plant. Investigations of nitrate reductase activity in green tissues of Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. and Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P.Beauv. were performed. The study was conducted in two localities: heavy contaminated waste tip Skalny located in Upper Silesia, and Blonia City Park in Bielsko-Biala which place was chosen as a control area. For both species high activity of the enzyme was detected. The nitrate reductase activity varied between 99 to 9093 nmol per g dry mass per hour for B. rutabulum and 265 to 5135 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum respectively on Skalny waste tip. In the control area the results varied between 747 to 1077 for B. rutabulum and 171 to 518 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only between the two species but not between habitats probably due to high dispersion and small amount of replications. The levels of nitrate and nitrite in stream water in both areas were also measured. In the Skalny waste tip there were high and reached 1.66 mg · dm-3 of nitrite and 65 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively. In the control area these amounts were lower and reach zero level for nitrite and 4.5 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively.