Da Sun, Jiaojiao Wang, Li Yao, Zilong Li and Shinichi Ohno
Arterial hypertension has a large prevalence in the general population and as a major hypertensive target organ, the involvement of kidney is usually hard to avoid and gradually develops into chronic kidney disease (CKD). Acute hypertension is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120, also known as hypertensive emergency (HE). In acute severe hypertension, the pathophysiology damage to the kidney tends to worsen on the basis of chronic damage, and accounts for more significant mortality. However, the mechanisms of renal injury induced by acute hypertension remain unclear. This review summarizes the clinical and histopathological features of hypertensive renal injury by using “in vivo cyrotechnique” and focusses on the interplay of distinct systemic signaling pathways, which drive glomerular podocyte injury. A thorough understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage and repair in hypertension will provide significant insight into the development of new research methods and therapeutic strategies for global CKD progression.