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Open access

J. Yang, M. Dou and D. Zhao

Abstract

Due to the star connection of the windings, the impact of the third harmonic which does not exist in three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) cannot be ignored in five-phase PMSM. So the conventional sensorless control methods for three-phase PMSM cannot be applied for five-phase PMSM directly. To achieve the sensorless control for five-phase PMSM, an iterative sliding mode observer (ISMO) is proposed with the consideration of the third harmonic impact. First, a sliding mode observer (SMO) is designed based on the fivephase PMSM model with the third harmonic to reduce the chattering and obtain the equivalent signal of the back electromotive force (EMF). Then, an adaptive back EMF observer is built to estimate the motor speed and rotor position, which eliminates the low-pass filter and phase compensation module and improves the estimation accuracy. Meanwhile, by iteratively using the SMO in one current sampling period to adjust the sliding mode gains, the sliding mode chattering and estimation errors of motor speed and rotor position are further reduced. Besides, the stability of the SMO and the adaptive back EMF observer are demonstrated in detail by Lyapunov stability criteria. Experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed observer for sensorless control of five-phase PMSM.

Open access

W. Zhao, Y. Zou, D.X. Xia and Z.D. Zou

Abstract

The potentiodynamic polarization test and slow strain rate tensile tests of X80 pipeline steel were performed in 0.5M Na2CO3-1M NaHCO3 solution to study the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking properties. The results of potentiodynamic polarization test show that there is an obvious stable passive region, about from 0v to 0.8V (SCE), indicating that anodic protection is feasible. The results of slow strain rate tensile tests show that the stress corrosion cracking sensibility is high and cathodic protection effect is restricted due to the hydrogen permeation. However, the elongation, yielding strength and tensile strength all increase with anodic protection. The higher anodic protection potential in the stable passive region is benefit to improve tensile strength and yielding strength. However, the higher elongation is obtained at 0.5V (SCE) anodic protection potential.

Open access

G.L. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y.L. Hao and Z.D. Zou

Abstract

Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

Open access

X. Wang, D. Kong, Z. Ma and R. Zhao

Abstract

The effect of edible films based on carrot puree, chitosan, corn starch, gelatin, glycerol and cinnamaldehyde on fresh-cut carrots was studied during storage. Several parameters, such as firmness, colour, weight loss, total carotenoids, total phenols, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and peroxidase (POD) activity in coated carrots were determined at regular intervals and then compared with the uncoated carrots throughout the storage period. Significant and expected changes were observed in all carrot samples that were compared. The coating treatment significantly (P < 0.05) delayed the senescence, reduced the deterioration of exterior quality and retained total carotenoids well compared with control (P < 0.05). In addition, significant inhibition of PPO activity (P < 0.05) and POD activity (P < 0.05) as well as reduced accumulation of polyphenols (P < 0.05) were observed for all coated samples. All of these favourable responses induced by coating treatment on minimally processed fresh-cut carrots showed beneficial physiological effects, which would give some useful references to the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable processing industry and satisfy people’s requirements allowing for extending product shelf life without negatively affecting the sensory quality or acceptability.

Open access

Wenbing Zhao, Roanna Lun, Deborah D. Espy and M. Ann Reinthal

Abstract

This article describes a novel approach to realtime motion assessment for rehabilitation exercises based on the integration of comprehensive kinematic modeling with fuzzy inference. To facilitate the assessment of all important aspects of a rehabilitation exercise, a kinematic model is developed to capture the essential requirements for static poses, dynamic movements, as well as the invariance that must be observed during an exercise. The kinematic model is expressed in terms of a set of kinematic rules. During the actual execution of a rehabilitation exercise, the similarity between the measured motion data and the model is computed in terms of their distances, which are then used as inputs to a fuzzy interference system to derive the overall quality of the execution. The integrated approach provides both a detailed categorical assessment of the overall execution of the exercise and the degree of adherence to individual kinematic rules.

Open access

K. Han, D. Zhao, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. Huang, J. Yang, K. Bi, T. Xu and Y. Li

Abstract

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. Envelope (E) protein of DTMUV is an important structural protein, which is able to induce protective immune response in target animals and can be used as specific serological diagnosis tool. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3E9, was generated against DTMUV E protein. It is positive in indirect ELISA against both His-E protein and the purified whole viral antigen. Also, this mAb showed positive reaction with DTMUV in Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay, and the isotype was IgG1. End-point neutralizing assay performed in BHK-21 cells revealed that the neutralization titer of 3E9 against DTMUV JS804 strain reached 1:50. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that 3E9 blocks infection of DTMUV at a step on viral attachment. The anti-E mAbs produced in the present work may be valuable in developing an antigen-capture ELISA test for antigen detection or a competitive ELISA test for antibody detection or therapeutic medicine for DTMUV in poultry.