Defect Luminescence of Yag Nanopowders and Crystals
Undoped and rare-earth-ion-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) nanopowders are prepared by the sol-gel low-temperature combustion method. The luminescence characteristics of the YAG, YAG: Ce, YAG:Pr, and YAG: Ce/Pr nanopowders are compared with those of the single crystals. The luminescence band peaking around 3.1 eV is complex and excited at about 3.6 eV, 3.9 eV and 4.3 eV. The 3.1 eV emission was peculiar to all the samples studied. The Stokes shift of this band is ~0.5 eV. The decay time of the ~3.1 eV emission at 80 K is ~14 ns and the slower decay (afterglow) components are practically absent. The 3.1 eV luminescence was suggested to arise from different intrinsic lattice defects.
Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950’s. These trials illustrated that material from the coast of Oregon and California grew faster than other provenances tested. Further collections were made to evaluate provenance and familylevel performance from these two areas, and in 1996 additional trials were established at four low-altitude sites across New Zealand. Genotype×environment (GxE) interaction among these sites was found to be important for diameter at breast height (DBH), less important for stem straightness and malformation and not important for outerwood acoustic velocity (a surrogate for wood stiffness). Heritabilities were low to moderate for all growth traits, and very low for malformation. Heritability for needle cast due to Swiss needle cast, measured as needle retention on the one site where infection was relatively high, was moderate at 0.37, and was likely a major factor creating GxE interactions for growth among sites. The heritability of wood acoustic velocity was moderate to high at individual sites (0.26-0.74) and across sites (0.49). Individual- trait selection revealed the potential for good genetic gains to be made when selecting the top 20 families for diameter growth (an average of 10.7%), straightness (an average of 11.5%) and acoustic velocity (an average of 7.0%). When we examined predicted genetic gains while selecting for needle retention and/or DBH, we found that selecting for needle cast at the affected site did not compromise DBH gains at that site. Selecting for genotypes with low needle cast at the affected site did, however, reduce gains for DBH estimated across all sites. In order to maximise gains across the current Douglas-fir growing estate, a division of growing sites between those known and predicted to be affected by needle cast and those not affected would seem appropriate. This is particularly relevant given recent climate modelling work suggests that Swiss needle cast will become more important in the South Island, and even more destructive in the North Island of New Zealand. We suggest addressing differences in site through the development of separate deployment populations.
This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years) agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT) (p = 0.01), the omission error rate (p = 0.027) and the decision error rate (p = 0.011), with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039) and rest (p = 0.023). Mean ± SE of RT (ms) was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003) and rest (p = 0.001). Mean ± SE of omission errors (%) was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (%) was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise.
Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders is studied depending on the morphology, grain sizes and method of synthesizing. Photocatalysis of the prepared powders was evaluated by degradation of the methylene blue aqueous solution. Absorbance spectra (190-100 nm) were measured during exposure of the solution to UV light. The relationships between the photocatalytic activity and the particle size, crystal polymorph phases and grain morphology were analyzed. The photocatalytic activity of prepared TiO2 nanopowders has been found to depend of the anatase-to-rutile phase ratio. Comparison is given for the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanopowders prepared by sol-gel and solar physical vapour deposition (SPVD) methods
The aims of this study were to compare muscle activity of the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and posterior deltoid in the bench press, dumbbell fly, shoulder press, and lateral raise exercises. Thirteen men experienced in strength training volunteered for the study. Muscle activation was recorded during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC) for data normalization, and during one set of 12 repetitions with the load of 60% 1RM in all exercises proposed. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni’s posthoc was applied using a 5% significance level. For anterior deltoid, the shoulder press (33.3% MVIC) presented a significantly higher level of activation when compared to other exercises. Also, no significant difference was found between the bench press (21.4% MVIC), lateral raise (21.2% MVIC), and dumbbell fly (18.8% MVIC). For the medial deltoid, the lateral raise (30.3% MVIC) and shoulder press (27.9% MVIC) presented a significantly higher level of activity than the bench press (5% MVIC) and dumbbell fly (3.4% MVIC). Besides, no significant difference was found between the bench press and the dumbbell fly. For the posterior deltoid, the lateral raise (24% MVIC) presented a significantly higher level of activation when compared to other exercises. For the posterior deltoid portion, the shoulder press (11.4% MVIC) was significantly more active than the bench press (3.5% MVIC) and dumbbell fly (2.5% MVIC). Moreover, no significant difference was found between the bench press and the dumbbell fly. In conclusion, the shoulder press and lateral raise exercises showed a higher level of muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and medial deltoid when compared to the bench press and dumbbell fly exercises.
Hybrid poplar clonal growth in the states (regions) of Minnesota (MN), Indiana (IN), Michigan (MI), and New York (NY) USA was analyzed to discover 10 geographically robust (geo-robust) clones, all P. deltoides x P. nigra (D x N) hybrids previously tested and screened in MN, that were broadly adapted across latitudinal and longitudinal ranges of 9 and 20 degrees, respectively. The clonal effect for growth explained 25 to 36 % of the total variance, 2.5–4.1 times the clone x site interaction. Clone explained 24 to 46 % of total variation in canker occurrence on two sites. Genetic gain in growth was calculated relative to commercial check clones. Genetic gain in growth of geo-robust clones exceeded that of random clones by 24 to 44 %. Geo-robust clones and the best clones on each site were not significantly different on the MN sites, but best clones outperformed geo-robust clones on the other sites by 10 to 39 % genetic gain. Geo-robust clones grew faster than commercial check clones on all but the MI site. The reduction in genetic gain for growth due to using broadly adapted clones relative to the best clones has to be compared to the additional costs and benefits of multiple breeding zones.