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D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

The aim of this research was to describe the level of origin of the branches originating from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries in both species. In the rabbit, the celiac artery originated in the majority of cases at the cranial end of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the middle part of the vertebral body of the same vertebra. The cranial mesenteric artery in the rabbit originated predominantly at the level of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. In the rabbit, the caudal mesenteric artery originated mainly at the level of the sixth lumbar vertebra and in the hare, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. We concluded that there were higher variabilities of the origins of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta in domesticated rabbit in comparison with the European hare.

Open access

D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

We recorded a very rare case of atypical renal arteries arrangement in a guinea pig using the corrosion technique in the study of the arterial system. The right renal artery originated from the ventral wall of the abdominal aorta at the level of the caudal aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra. The left renal artery originated from the left common iliac artery approximately 12 mm caudally to the aortic bifurcation. The right kidney was located ventral to the aortic bifurcation and the left kidney inside the pelvic cavity between the common iliac arteries. According to the vascular pattern, we determined that the ectopic kidneys in this guinea pig were unusual. This is the first case describing bilateral ectopic kidneys in a guinea pig.

Open access

D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical arrangements of the branches arising from the subclavian arteries in the domesticated rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. The arterial system of the entire body was injected by Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. The arrangement of the origins of the branches of the bilateral subclavian arteries were more variable in the hare. The number of branches arising from the subclavian artery were more regular in the rabbit on the right side and in the hare on the left side. In the rabbit, we found in two cases, the origins of the branches of the left subclavian artery from the aortic arch. The anatomical found between the rabbit and the hare may possibly be associated with their different ways of life.

Open access

D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the European hare using the dissection technique. This study was carried out on 10 adult European hares. The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The presence of the ventral radicular branches of the rami spinales entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 62.1 % as left-sided and in 37.9 % of the cases as right-sided. There were two dorsal spinal arteries located on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord in 70 % of the cases, and no dorsal spinal artery in 30 % of the cases. The presence of the ventral radicular branches of the rami spinales that reached the spinal cord, was observed in 66.2 % of the cases on the left side and in 33.8 % of the cases on the right side. Based on our results, we can conclude that there is high variability of the blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the European hare.

Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to compare the level of origin of the renal arteries in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of renal arteries in the rabbit, in the hare and between both species. In the rabbit, the right renal artery originated at the level of the second lumbar vertebra in 70 % of the cases and at the level of the first lumbar vertebra in 30 % of the cases, and the left-sided renal artery originated in 60 % of the cases at the level of the second lumbar vertebra and at the level of the third lumbar vertebra in 40 % of the cases. In the hare, the bilateral renal arteries originated at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. According to the results, it can be concluded that the origin level of the renal arteries from the abdominal aorta is more variable in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.

Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the hare using the corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 10 adult European hares (Lepus Europeus). The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The fusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries was found in 70% of the cases without a connecting branch and in 30% of the cases with one connecting branch just posterior to the fusion. The ventral spinal artery was in connection with the right vertebral artery in 60% of the cases and by means of an anastomosis of two spinal branches arising from the bilateral vertebral arteries in 40% of the cases. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that there is a high variability of the blood supply to the cervical part of the spinal cord in the hare.

Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to describe the branching schema of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta: the a. celiaca, the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis. The study was carried out on nine adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. In all specimens, the first branch originating from the a. celiaca was the a. lienalis. The a. hepatica was present as the second branch in four cases and as the third branch also in four cases. The first branch of the a. mesenterica cranialis was the a. colica media in seven cases. The second branch was represented by the a. pancreaticoduodenalis caudalis also in seven cases. Two aa. jejunales originated as the third branch. In seven cases, the fourth branch formed the truncus jejunalis and the fifth branch the a. ileocecalis. The a. mesenterica caudalis had a uniform arrangement in all of the specimens. The results enabled us to conclude that there was higher variability of the branching pattern of the a. celiaca in comparison with the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis in the European hare.

Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical arrangement of the branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta abdominalis in the rabbit and the hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. After polymerization of the casting medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found different variations in; the number of arteries, level of their origin and arrangement. The aa. lumbales of the same level arose by means of a common trunk or their origin was independent. The aa. lumbales VI or aa. lumbales VI et VII originated also from the a. sacralis mediana. By aa. lumbales we found an important interspecies difference in; number, diameter, ramification and density of dorsal branches, which are designated for the dorsal muscles of the body stem. All listed parameters of branches were higher in the hare. This anatomical arrangement of dorsal branches is adapted to the higher movement activity of the hare. According to our results, it can be concluded that the anatomical arrangement of the branches of the aorta abdominalis shows a higher number of variations in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, D. Maženský and V. Danielisová

Abstract

It is well known that neuronal death, clinically manifested as paresis or plegia, is the end result of many pathological events affecting the central nervous system. However, several aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of tetra- or paraplegia caused by spinal cord traumatic or ischemic damage are only insufficiently understood and their histopathological manifestations remain poorly documented. That is why the authors decided to report on light-microscopic changes observed in 30 μm thick spinal cord sections cut from L3-S1 segments processed by the Nauta staining method in a group of 6 dogs with ischemic paraplegia induced by 30 min of a high thoracic aorta occlusion, and in a different group of 6 dogs with traumatic paraplegia induced by 5 min spinal cord compression with 200 g metallic rod. Both experimental groups (ischemic and compression) of spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprised the same number of mongrel dogs of both sexes, weighing 18-25 kg. In addition, each of the experimental groups had 3 normal dogs that served as controls. All experimental procedures were accomplished under general anaesthesia induced by pentobarbital and maintained by a mixture of halothane and oxygen. Following the 72 hour survival period, all 18 animals were euthanized by transcardial perfusion with 3,000 ml of saline and fixed by 3,000 ml of 10 % neutral formaldehyde during deep pentobarbital anaesthesia. The histopathological manifestation of neural tissue damage caused by ischemia or compression was similar. The light-microscopic images in both groups were characterised by argyrophilia and the swelling of grey matter neurons. However, in the dogs with traumatic SCIs, the changes only reached about 750 μm cranially and caudally from the necrotic epicentre. These findings indicated that the events taking part in secondary spinal cord injury mechanisms are similar in both, ischemic as well as in traumatic SCI.