A modern infrared camera was used to observe the peripheral burning of cigarettes during puffing and smouldering. The computer-controlled infrared system captured thermal images with recording rates up to 50 Hz at 8-bit (256-colour) resolution. The response time was less than 0.04 s at ca. 780 °C. The overall performance of the system was superior to most infrared systems used in previously reported investigations. The combined capacity allowed us to capture some faster, smaller high-temperature burning events on the periphery of a cigarette during puffing, which was first described by Egertion et al. in 1963 using an X-ray method. These transient burning events were caused by tobacco shreds near the coal surface experiencing the maximum air influx. The temperature of these transient burning events could be ca. 200 to 250 °C higher than the average peripheral temperature of the cigarette. The likelihood of these high-temperature burning events occurring during smouldering was significantly less. Some other details of the cigarette's combustion were also observed with improved simplicity and clarity.
Ammonium sulfate fra.ctionation, gel permeation and cation-exchange column chromatography were employed for panial purification of proteases from leaf laminae and callus tissues of Samsun NN tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L). The predominant proteases in the leaf and callus are acidic sulfhydryl proteases which are activated by 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, completely inhibited- by iodoacetic acid, and partially inhibited by phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin A. With hemoglobin and tobaccl:l Fraction I protein as substrates, leaf and callus proteases showed a pH optimum of 5. However, specific activity was significandy higher in the callus than in the leaf. Tobacco proteases digested hemoglobin more effectively than Fraction I protein and showed the least activity with casein. Gel permeation resolved three -protease variants in leaf extracts but only two in callus samples. Rechromatography of the large molecular weight fraction in a cation-exchange column produced three and two variants for leaf and callus, respectively. The present results suggest that there are at least five variants of sulfhydryl protease in tobacco leaf and three in callus tissue and that tobacco Fraction I protein can be metabolized by both leaf and callus proteases.
Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT) of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.
The aim of this work is to study the mixed convection boundary layer flow from a horizontal surface embedded in a porous medium with exponential decaying internal heat generation (IHG). Boundary layer equations are reduced to two ordinary differential equations for the dimensionless stream function and temperature with two parameters: ε, the mixed convection parameter, and λ, the exponent of x. This problem is numerically solved with a system of parameters using built-in codes in Maple. The influences of these parameters on velocity and temperature profiles, and the Nusselt number, are thoroughly compared and discussed.
B Wang, B Nie, D Tang, R Li, X Liu, J Song, W Wang and Z Liu
The frequency of the Robertonian (ROB) translocation in newborn babies is approximately one in 1000. Robertsonian translocation is an unusual type of chromosome rearrangement caused by two particular chromosomes joining together. The aim of the study was to analyze the segregation of the ROB translocations in 13 male carriers, and to verify a possible inter-chromosomal effect (ICE) of the ROB translocation on chromosomes 18, X, and Y. Thirteen male patients were included in the study. Multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, 18, X and Y in sperm. Among the heterozygous ROB translocation carriers, the frequency of normal/balanced spermatozoa resulting from alternate segregation varied between 70.4 and 85.2%. The frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa resulting from adjacent segregation varied between 14.8 and 29.6%. Increased frequencies of aneuploidy for a sex chromosome were found in 10 ROB translocation carriers (P2-P8, P10-P12). Increased frequencies of aneuploidy for chromosome 18 were found in10 ROB translocation carriers (P3-P9, P11-P13). In addition, increased frequencies of diploid were found in 11 ROB translocation carriers (P2-P9, P11-P13). Among the homozygous ROB translocation carriers, the rate of balanced spermatozoa was 99.7% and the frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa was 0.3%. However, the frequencies of aneuploidy for a sex chromosome and chromosome 18 were normal. Despite the high number of normal/balanced frequencies, there remained many unbalanced spermatozoa resulting from alternate segregation. The ROB translocation carriers may be at an increased risk for ICE. Robertsonian translocation homozygosity could be seen as a potential speciation in humans with 44 chromosomes.
The problem of exponential law of steady, incompressible fluid flow in boundary layer and heat transfer are studied in an electrically conducting fluid over a semi-infinite vertical plate assuming the variable thermal conductivity in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The governing system of equations including the continuity equation, momentum equation and energy equation have been transformed into nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables. All the numerical and graphical solutions are obtained through the use of Maple software. The solutions are found to be dependent on three dimensionless parameters including the magnetic field parameter M, thermal conductivity parameter β and Prandtl number Pr. Representative velocity and temperature profiles are presented at various values of the governing parameters. The skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer are also calculated for different values of the parameters.
The distribution of nematode communities with depth in greenhouse soil of different ages from Shenyang suburb was investigated in October 2004. Thirteen families and 23 genera were observed in our study. Heterocephalobus was dominant genus in all treatments. The numbers of total nematodes and trophic groups declined with soil depth but increased with greenhouse age. Bacterivores were the most abundant trophic group in all treatments, followed by plant parasites and omnivores-predators, while fungivores were the least, only accounted for less than 4 % of the total abundance. Maturity index (MI) and plant parasite index (PPI) were effective in distinguishing differences in nematode community structure in different ages of greenhouses. The numbers of total nematodes were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate, and electrolytic conductivity, but negatively with soil pH.
Soil nematode community structure was studied in a terrestrial sand dune system of the Horqin Sandy Land, Northeast China. The nematode abundance and generic composition in four sites (from the lowland, the middle part of windward slope and the top of windward slope to leeward slope) and three soil layers (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm) of the stabilized sand dune were compared. The results showed the total number of nematodes which ranged from 11 to 160 individuals per 100 g dry soils was significantly different among the sites and the depths (P < 0.05). Thirty genera were observed and Acrobeles was the dominant genus in our investigation. A significant difference in the abundance of bacterivores was found among the depths (P < 0.01). The total numbers of nematodes and plant parasites positively correlated with electronic conductivity, soil moisture, total organic carbon and nitrogen contents (P < 0.05). S, TD, NCR and PPI were found to be sensitive to environmental stress in the stabilized sand dune system.
C. S. Chen, X. D. Xie, S. Y. Cao, T. G. Liu, L. W. Lin, X. H. Chen, Q. C. Liu, J. C. Kuang and Y. Xiao
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Mg-doped ZnO (MWNTs/Zn1-xMgxO) nanohybrids were prepared by co-precipitation method, and their photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) was studied. Experimental results showed that Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of MWNTs under annealing at 450 °C and 550 °C. The resultant MWNTs/Zn0.9Mg0.1O nanohybrids had better photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange than pure ZnO: the rates of MO photodegradation were 100 % and 30 % for 1 h, respectively. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the excellent electronic properties of MWNTs and Mg-doping.
In this paper, choosing highly frequent keywords from core journals in the field of 1992-2013 national knowledge discovery in CNKI database, counting the number of two frequent keywords co-occurrences in the same journal, then constructing the highly frequent keywords matrix, and transforming the highly frequent keywords matrix into a correlation matrix and a dissimilarity matrix, we analyze the dissimilarity matrix based on the use of factor analysis, cluster analysis. After discussing the results of the analysis, we found that the current hotspots in the field of domestic knowledge discovery have focused on the following six aspects, knowledge discovery based on data research, knowledge discovery algorithm optimization research, the model of knowledge discovery and references research, knowledge management based on domain ontology, expert system construction research, and applied research of the knowledge discovery. Finally, we summarized the research hotspots in the field of international knowledge discovery in the same way and suggested the domestic scholars to extend some directions of the research in the field of knowledge discovery.