T. Schlebusch, J. Orschulik, J. Malmivuo, S. Leonhardt, D. Leonhäuser, J. Grosse, M. Kowollik, R. Kirschner-Hermanns and M. Walter
Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.