Genus Setaria, Viborg 1795, comprises 46 species that parasitize in the peritoneal cavity of Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Hyracoidea. The majority of these infections pass unnoticed, but occasionally they can induce severe peritonitis or neurological signs in aberrant hosts and, rarely, even in humans. In this paper we describe for the first time the finding of Setaria tundra in roe deer in Croatia. We examined 45 roe deer and determined the presence of Setaria nematodes in 24.4% of samples, which were subsequently diagnosed as Setaria tundra using molecular methods.
The present study reports for the first time on the helminth species occurring in the gastro-intestinal system of fat dormice (Glis glis) in Croatia. Out of 55 dormice, 63.7 % harboured helminths belonging to two species, the nematode Paraheligmonina gracilis (syn. Longistriata elpatievskii) (Heligmonellidae, Trichostrogyloidea) in the prevalence of 52.7 %, and the cestode Hymenolepis sulcata (Hymenolepididae, Cyclophyllidea) in the prevalence of 32.7 %. Concurrent infections of both parasites were found in 12 fat dormice, P. gracilis alone was detected in 17 hosts and H. sulcata alone in 6 samples. No influence of parasitic infestation on animal weight was observed. Glirid helminths do not represent zoonotic pathogens despite the fact that dormice occasionally inhabit cottages and village houses, and are used in human nutrition.
Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease of primary wild and domestic ruminants, caused by a digenean trematode, Fascioloides magna. The final hosts of F. magna are divided according to the host-parasite interactions into definitive, dead end and aberrant. The clinical appearance, pathology, outcome of disease, and its importance in disease epidemiology vary with different host types. According to this division, wild boar (Sus scrofa) are characterized as a dead end host. In this paper we analysed 12 wild boar livers from Croatia. Eleven of them contained pigment traces, pseudocysts, degrading pseudocysts, fluke migratory channels, live and degrading flukes. F. magna eggs were found in pseudocysts, but no eggs were recovered from faeces. Concurrent infection with F. magna and Fasciola hepatica was detected in one liver. According to everything we observed, wild boar currently has no direct role in maintaining and spreading the disease.
The aim of our study was to describe the survival of Slovenian cancer patients diagnosed in the last twenty years. An insight is given into the improvement made in different cancer types, population groups and prognostic factors.
Materials and methods
The principal data source was the population-based Slovenian Cancer Registry. The survival analysis included patients diagnosed with cancer in twenty years period from 1997 to 2016, which has been divided into four consecutive five-year periods. In addition, the analysis was stratified by cancer type, gender, age and stage. The survival was estimated using net survival calculated by the Pohar-Perme method and the complete approach has been applied.
The survival of Slovenian cancer patients has been increasing over time. During the 20 years observed, five-year net survival increased by 11 percentage points. Significantly higher growth was observed in men. Age and stage at diagnosis are still crucial for the survival of cancer patients. Five-year net survival is lowest in those over 75 years of age at diagnosis but has also improved by seven percentage points over the past 20 years. The five-year net survival of patients in the localized stage increased by ten percentage points over the 20 years under observation. Survival of patients in the distant stage has not been improving. In both sexes, survival for melanoma, colorectal and lung cancers have increased significantly over the last 20 years. Progress has also been made in the two most common gender specific cancers: breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. Still, the significant progress in prostate cancer is probably mostly due to lead-time bias as during the study period, Slovenia used indiscriminate PSA testing, which probably artificially prolonged survival.
The survival of Slovenian cancer patients has been increasing over time, which gives us a basis and an incentive for future improvements. To monitor the effectiveness of managing the cancer epidemic, the cancer burden needs to be monitored also in the future, using quality data and scientifically justified methodological approaches. In this process a well organised population-based cancer registries should play a key role.