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D. Jędrzejczyk

Effect of High Temperature Oxidation on Structure and Corrosion Resistance of the Zinc Coating Deposited on Cast Iron

The presented work describes results regarding influence of the high-temperature oxidation on anticorrosion properties of zinc coating created during hot-dip galvanizing at surface of cast iron contained different graphite precipitates: flake, vermicular, nodular. Test was made in Na2SO4 solution, using specific samples in form of cylinder, with groove lathed at the whole side wall circumference, to make the oxidation and galvanizing easier. Before corrosion test, samples were oxidized at temperature 850 °C, within 4h, sandblasted and etched chemically. For comparison, the corrosion resistance of cast iron samples without preliminary oxidation treatment and steel sample galvanized in analogical conditions were also measured. Research confirmed that to obtain subsurface composite cast iron layer two stage scale removal process is necessary: sandblasting combined with chemical treatment. When only sandblasting is applied the clean outside surface is achieved but zinc penetration depth inside after-graphite voids is slight. On the other hand, using one stage chemical treatment the completely removal of relatively thick outside scale layer was impossible. Research proved that cast iron oxidation process increases essentially the corrosion resistance of created zinc layer. This difference changes with dependence on graphite shape and is the smallest in case of nodular graphite and increases as graphite precipitates change to vermicular and flake. The achieved effect results from neutralization of negative influence of graphite precipitation on compactness and continuity of zinc coating and created subsurface composite layer.

Open access

D. Jędrzejczyk and M. Hajduga

Effect of the Surface Oxidation on the Hot-Dip Zinc Galvanizing of Cast Iron

In presented work authors analyzed the high-temperature oxidation process from the point of view of its influence on effects obtained during cast iron hot-dip zinc coating. Research concerned the influence of the high-temperature oxidation, as a preliminary stage previous to coating with zinc on the change of surface layer structure as well as subsurface layer of cast iron with flake, vermicular and nodular graphite. To obtain proper results of Zn coating the special chemical etching of cast iron after oxidation is necessary. The effects were compared to these obtained during cast iron coating without preliminary thermal processing. To comparative analysis both optical and scanning microscope, RTG measurement and profile measurement gauge results were applied. As a consequence of conducted high-temperature oxidation in subsurface layer of cast iron pores have been created, that in result of coating in liquid zinc were filled with new phase and in this way the new zone with different properties was obtained. It was additionally stated that the cast iron layer enriched in zinc is considerably thicker than layers got with application of other methods. Thickness of sub-surface layer where "after-graphite" pores are filled with zinc depends directly on the kind of graphite. When the flake and vermicular/compacted graphite is observed depth of penetration reaches 120 μm, whereas in nodular cast iron it reaches only 15μm, although sometimes single voids filled with zinc are observed at 75μm depth.

Open access

S. Wegrzynkiewicz, D. Jedrzejczyk, I. Szłapa, M. Hajduga and S. Boczkal


The steel substrate was cut by means of different methods, like water jet, laser or oxyacetylene blowpipe. So, some different surfaces (after cutting / without cutting) were subjected to the (Zn) - hot dip galvanizing. The galvanizing process was performed in industrial conditions by applying the constant temperature equal to 457°C, and a dipping time equal to 150 s. The (Zn) - coating morphologies and sub-layer thicknesses were analyzed to explain some expected differences in the coatings formation

Open access

S. Węgrzynkiewicz, D. Jędrzejczyk, I. Szłapa, M. Hajduga and S. Boczkal


The steel substrate formed as the result of oxy-acetylene cutting (OAB) was treated differently - using: softening annealing, grinding and electro-polishing. Investigations were focused on the influence of additional processing on the structure and corrosion resistance of the deposited zinc coating. The hot - dip Zn galvanizing process was conducted in industrial conditions. Parameters were fixed: temperature 457 °C, dipping time 150 s. The coating thickness diversification dependent on the sub-surface steel structure was analysed and compared to the previous results. The correlation between conducted treatment and coatings morphology was determined.

Open access

D. Jędrzejczyk, M. Hojny and M. Głowacki

The paper presents the results of the application simulating the rolling process of steel in terms of coexistence of liquid and solid phases. The created mathematical models can be the basis for creation of systems that simulate the final phase of the continuous casting process relying on using a roller burnishing machine for continuous casting of steel. For a complete description of the performance of the material during deformation in these conditions, the constructed mathematical model is a fully three-dimensional model and consists of three parts: thermal, mechanical, and density variation submodels. The thermal model allows the prediction of temperature changes during plastic deformation of solidifying material. The mechanical model determines the kinetics of plastic continuum flow in the solid and semi-solid states, and the resulting deformation field. The temperature of the process forces supplementing the description of the performance of the material with a density variation model that allows the prediction of changes in the density of the material during the final phase of solidification with simultaneous plastic deformation. For the purpose built model, experimental studies were performed using a physical simulator Gleeble 3800®. They allowed the determination of the necessary physical properties of the metal within the temperature of change state. In addition to presenting the developed models the work also includes the description of the author’s application that uses the above mathematical models. The application was written in the fully object-oriented language C++ and is based on the finite element method. The developed application beside the module data input, also consist of a module of three-dimensional visualization of the calculations results. Thanks to it, the analysis of the distribution of the particular rolling parameters in any cross-section of the rolled strip will be possible. The paper presents the results of the authors’ research in the area of the advanced computer simulation.

Open access

W. Wołczyński, E. Guzik, W. Wajda, D. Jędrzejczyk, B. Kania and M. Kostrzewa

Cet in Solidifying Roll - Thermal Gradient Field Analysis

As the first step of simulation, a temperature field for solidifying cast steel and cast iron roll was created. The convection in the liquid is not comprised since in the first approximation, the convection does not influence the analyzed occurrence of the C → E (columnar to equiaxed grains) transition (CET) in the roll. The obtained temperature field allows to study the dynamics of its behaviour observed in the middle of the mould thickness. This midpoint of the mould thickness was treated as an operating point for the C → E transition. A full accumulation of the heat in the mould was postulated for the C → E transition. Thus, a plateau at the T(t) curve was observed at the midpoint. The range of the plateau existence tC ↔ tE corresponded to the real period of transition, that occurs in the solidifying roll.

At the second step of simulation, the thermal gradients field was studied. Three ranges were distinguished:

a/ for the formation of the columnar structure (the C - zone):

The columnar structure formation was significantly slowed down during incubation period. It resulted from a competition between columnar growth and equiaxed growth expected at that period of time. The relationship was postulated to correspond well with the critical thermal gradient, Gcrit..

A simulation was performed for the cast steel and cast iron rolls solidifying as if in industrial condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into two zones (columnar and equiaxed) some experiments dealing with solidification were made on semi-industrial scale.

A macrosegregation equation for both mentioned zones was formulated. It was based on a recent equation for redistribution after back-diffusion. The role of the back-diffusion parameter was emphasized as a factor responsible for the redistribution in columnar structure and equiaxed structure.