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M. Wróbel, A. Burbelko and D. Gurgul

Density change occurring in ductile iron castings is a phenomenon far more complicated than in other casting alloys. Initially, graphite nodules grow directly from liquid phase. That is the reason for decrease in alloy density and casting expansion. Decaying carbon concentration in liquid phase adjacent to graphite nodules favours growth of austenite, which covers them isolating from the liquid. In order for graphite to grow further diffusion of carbon through thickening solid solution layer is needed. At this time expansion fades and shrinkage begins. Industrial experience shows that whether or not shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings will occur depends on wall thickness.

In the paper an attempt to identify mechanism of shrinkage porosity formation in nodular iron castings during solidification was made. To that end a two-dimension simulation of binary Fe-C system solidification by cellular automaton method was carried out. Using data obtained with Thermo-CALC software, dependencies of temperature on density for each present phase were determined. For liquid phase and austenite influence of carbon concentration on density was also appended. Applying those relationships to the model, density of each individual cell of used grid as well as mean value for whole analysed region were assessed. The method allowed to consider volume fractions of phases and heterogeneity of solid and liquid solutions to find the mean density of the material.

The paper presents results of computer simulation of nodular iron density change, with eutectic saturation of 0,9 to 1,1.

Open access

D. Gurgul, A. Burbelko and T. Wiktor

Abstract

The paper presents validation tests for method which is used for the evaluation of the statistical distribution parameters for 3D particles’ diameters. The tested method, as source data, uses chord sets which are registered from a random cutting plane placed inside a sample space. In the sample space, there were individually generated three sets containing 3D virtual spheres. Each set had different Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF3) of the sphere diameters, namely: constant radius, normal distribution and bimodal distribution as a superposition of two normal distributions. It has been shown that having only a chord set it is possible, by using the tested method, to calculate the mean value of the outer sphere areas. For the sets of data, a chord method generates quite large errors for around 10% of the smallest nodules in the analysed population. With the increase of the nodule radii, the estimation errors decrease. The tested method may be applied to foundry issues e.g. for the estimation of gas pore sizes in castings or for the estimation of nodule graphite sizes in ductile cast iron.

Open access

A.A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, M. Królikowski and M. Wróbel

Abstract

Formation of the shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings is far more complicated phenomenon than in other casting alloys. In the paper one of the aspects of formation of porosity in this alloy was considered - changes in cast iron's density during crystallization caused by varying temperature, phase fractions and phase's composition. Computer model, using cellular automata method, for determination of changes in density of ductile iron during crystallization was applied. Simulation of solidification was conducted for 5 Fe-C binarie alloys with ES from 0.9 to 1.1 for the estimation of the eutectic saturation influence on the ductile iron shrinkage and expansion. As a result of calculations it was stated that after undercooling ductile iron below liquidus temperature volumetric changes proceed in three stages: preeutectic shrinkage (minimal in eutectic cast iron), eutectic expansion (maximum value equals to about 1.5% for ES = 1.05) and last shrinkage (about 0.4% in all alloys regardless of ES).

Open access

A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, E. Guzik and W. Kapturkiewicz

Abstract

Volume changes of the binary Fe-C alloy with nodular graphite were forecast by means of the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) model of solidification. Simulations were performed in 2D space for differing carbon content. Dependences of phase density on temperature were considered in the computations; additionally density of the liquid phase and austenite were deemed as a function of carbon concentration. Changes of the specific volume were forecast on the base of the phase volume fractions and changes of phase density. Density of modeled material was calculated as weighted average of densities of each phase.

Open access

A.A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, W. Kapturkiewicz and M. Górny

Abstract

The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1) on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains) and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.

Open access

B. Ślaska, L. Grzybowska-Szatkowska, M. Bugno-Poniewierska, A. Gurgul, A. Śmiech, D. Różańska and J. Dudka

Abstract

The aim of the study was to identify polymorphisms and mutations in the mitochondrial ND4 gene and to analyse the associations between the occurrence of molecular changes in mtDNA and phenotypic traits in tumours in German Shepherd dogs. Fifty samples obtained from blood and tumour tissues of German Shepherd dogs with diagnosed tumours were analysed. DNA extraction, amplification, and sequencing of the mtDNA ND4 gene, and bioinformatics, statistical, and in silico protein coding SNP analyses were performed. ND4 mutations and/or polymorphisms were noted in eleven nucleotide positions in nearly half of the examined dogs. All the changes were substitution mutations. A majority of the changes identified were homoplasmic. In one dog with osteosarcoma, blood heteroplasmy was detected. In two positions of the ND4 gene, presence of non-synonymous mutations leading to amino acid changes in the ND4 protein was reported. Analyses carried out to determine the deleterious effect of mutations indicated an almost 97 and 62% probability that a single amino acid substitution (p.G239V and p.I401T, respectively) in the protein has a negative impact on its function. The results of statistical analyses indicate a significant association between the occurrence of mutations in three loci of the ND4 gene and the location of tumours. The mutations identified may be a result of cell adaptation to the changes in the environment occurring during carcinogenesis. The high frequency of mutations in the tumours may indicate genetic instability of mtDNA, which may also play a role in carcinogenesis.