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Open access

S. Fialová, D. Tekeľová and D. Grančai

The content of phenolic compounds in underground and aerial parts of different Mentha species

Mentha L., the genus belonging to family Lamiaceae, subfamily Nepetoidae, has high commercial importance in the pharmacy as well as in food industry. Mints are available in all five continents and are important sources of each traditional medicine in the prevention and therapy of plenty of diseases. The most active compounds are essential oil and polyphenols. In the past the secondary metabolites in aerial parts were examined, but there is no evidence about the determination of secondary metabolites in underground parts of mints. Therefore the object of this work was to determine the content of phenolic compounds (total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD) and flavonoids) of methanol extracts of rhizomes of different Mentha L. and their comparison with leaves extracts. The contents of secondary metabolites were determined using spectrophotometric methods of Slovak Pharmacopoeia. We have detected similar quantities of THD in leaves (0.79 - 2.48 %) and rhizomes (0.96 - 2.18 %), but underground parts were poor in content of flavonoids (< 0.1 %). The free radical scavenging activity using DPPH free radical was investigated as well. A bit stronger antioxidant activity was shown in leaves extracts considering flavonoids content.

Open access

V. Vaľko, S. Černochová and D. Grančai

The determination of coumarins in extracts from plants of the genus Philadelphus L.

Species of the genus Philadelphus L. (mock orange, Hydrangeaceae) are popular ornamental shrubs cultivated in Eastern Asia, Northern America, South-eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Mock orange was used to make soap, bows, arrows and cradles in the past. Aqueous extracts of Philadelphus coronarius L. flowers are used in traditional medicine and in homeopathy. Some members of the genus Philadelphus L. are known for their cytotoxic, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects.

This study deals with quantitative determination of coumarins in different extracts (methanol, butanol, water) of leaves of Philadelphus coronarius L., Philadelphus magdalenae Rehd., Philadelphus pekinensis Rupr., Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr., Philadelphus subcanus Koehne, Philadelphus tenuifolius Rupr. et Maxim. and Philadelphus zeyheri Schrad. The content of coumarins was determined as umbelliferone using spectrophotometry.

The highest content of coumarins was recorded in methanol extract of species Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr., and butanol and water extract of Philadelphus subcanus Koehne. The results indicate higher content of coumarins in butanol and water extract compared to methanol extract.

The results obtained provide the basis for isolation and identification of biologically active substances from these extracts.

Open access

V. Forman, M. Haladová and D. Grančai

Abstract

Leaves of selected species of the Cornaceae family (Swida alba, Swida australis, Swida controversa, Swida coreana, Swida baileyi, Cornus kousa, Cornus mas) were investigated in this study. These shrubs or small trees with hard wood are cultivated in Slovakia (Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum). Some species (C. mas and C. kousa) have edible fruits. Cornels find broad ethnopharmacological use, for example, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where fruits of C. officinalis are used for the treatment of several disorders, such as organ hypersecretion or diabetes. They are also used as tonics and for astringent effects. Leaves and fruits of C. kousa have been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. The aim of our study is to compare the content of selected secondary metabolites groups in the leaves of above-mentioned species. The plant material was collected in the Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum, Slovakia, in September 2010. Modified spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia, 8th edition (Ph. Eur. 8) were used for all assays. Results show that the total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD) content varied from 1.14 (S. alba) to 2.86% (S. coreana) when expressed as rosmarinic acid, and from 1.01 (S. alba) to 2.55% (S. coreana) when expressed as caffeic acid. The flavonoids content ranged from 0.21 (C. mas) to 1.37% (S. coreana), total polyphenols content from 9.6 (C. kousa) to 7.27% (S. coreana), and tannins content from 7.17 (C. kousa) to 4.04% (S. coreana). Leaves of Korean dogwood (S. coreana) were observed to show the highest content of THD expressed as rosmarinic acid (2.86%) and caffeic acid (2.55%), as well as of flavonoids (1.37%). Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) contained the highest amounts of tannins (7.17%) and total polyphenols (9.6%) on the other hand.

Open access

M. Cupáková, D. Rauová, Z. Vitková, P. Herdová, D. Grančai and M. Haladová

Determination of kaempferol in extracts from Lilium candidum L. Liliaceae by means of liquid chromatography

There is an optimized, validated and implemented method for determination of kaempferol through liquid chromatography in terms of isocratic separation in the proportion: 0.05% phosphoric acid and acetonitril (50:50) v/v. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined. The content of kaempferol in samples from Lilium candidum L. with the use of different concentrations of extract agent and after releasing kaempferol from dermal semisolid medicaments was investigated. The samples were prepared by various producers. The results obtained proved that the implemented method shows good validated parameters and is favourable for determination of kaempferol in samples from Lilium candidum L. It was kaempferol that evaluated best from the samples that were prepared by extraction of 80% ethanol. The contents in the samples were determined using the method, after releasing kaempferol from dermal semisolid medicaments.

Open access

S. Fialová, D. Tekeľová, E. Švajdlenka, P. Potúček, K. Jakubová and D. Grančai

Abstract

Mentha × piperita (L.) Huds. of the family Lamiaceae is a very important species for commercial exploitation due to the high content of essential oil. Besides the essential oils, there are also other significant secondary metabolites in peppermint, especially flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. In this study, we evaluate the variability of essential oil constituents and of phenolic compounds in the leaves of M. × piperita during the development of inflorescence. Similar studies, dealing with the variation of the essential oils and its composition, have been performed in the past, but no attention was paid to the variation of other secondary metabolites. We examined M. × piperita cv. ‘Perpeta’, the domestic cultivar. The plants were cultivated in the climatic conditions of south-west Slovakia. The contents of secondary metabolites were investigated in the week periods, from the beginning of inflorescence formation to the end of flowering. The yield and the quality of essential oil have been carried out by distillation and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The phenolic substances were analysed using spectrophotometric methods according to European Pharmacopoeia. The highest contents of phenolic substances have been found in leaves of plants during the flowering phenophase, the same stage when essential oil of mint also achieves the highest quality.

Open access

S. Fialová, L. Halušová, D. Tekeľová and D. Grančai

Abstract

The identification of species in the genus Mentha is especially difficult because of the ease of hybridization, favoured by gynodioecy, which is further complicated by polymorphism, cultivation, polyploidy and vegetative propagation. This all explains the genicpopulation and microevolutionary background for variability of mints. In this work we studied the usage of micromorphological and phytochemical parameters in identification and characterization of selected Mentha species. On abaxial surface of leaves of 20 Mentha populations we determined the size and the number of peltate glandular trichomes. The essential oil was analysed by GC MS. We identified and characterized populations of M. × piperita, M. spicata, M. spicata subsp. condensata, M. spicata var. crispa, M. spicata var. citrata, M. × gentilis, M. aquatic, M. arvensis amd M. longifolia. The size and the number of peltate glandular trichomes contribute to characterisation of some Mentha species (especially in M. longifolia and M. × piperita).

Open access

S. Fialová, D. Tekeľová, K. Rendeková, J. Klinčok, M. Kolárik, K. Kurucová and D. Grančai

Abstract

Mints rank among the most important Lamiaceae plants. In addition to essential oil, they contain many valuable phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids that participate in mints’ pharmacological properties. In this work, we examined the contents of phenolic compounds variation in the course of 4 years of vegetation. We compared the contents of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 505 nm), total polyphenols and tannins expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 760 nm), and flavonoids expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (λ = 392 nm) and quercetin (λ = 420 nm) in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old plants’ dry leaves, respectively. Spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia were employed. Our results show high levels of active phenolic compounds, particularly in 3- and 4-year-old plants.