Irritable bowel syndrome, one of the most common functional gastro intestinal disorders all over the world is considered to have a multi factorial pathogenesis. Recently more and more studies are focusing on the changes that take place in the micro biota of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, underlining the bacterial role in this pathogenesis. As a consequence, bacterial overgrowth, along with intestinal dysmotility, altered brain-gut axis and genetic factors are considered part of this pathophysiology. This report intends to summarize the actual knowledge on irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome, from details on the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment to details on the relationship between these two syndromes.
Ramona Moldovan, Mădălina Radu, Adriana Băban and D.L. Dumitraşcu
The so-called “Psychosomatic symptoms” represent a real challenge for internists. These have often been described as non-specific, non-organic, functional, dysfunctional or idiopathic. These “diagnostic puzzles” are obviously difficult to treat. Psychosomatic symptoms have been categorized as hysteria, psychogenic, psychosomatic, conversion, somatization and somatoform disorder. It is only when modern classificatory systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) were developed that research was stimulated and new clinical developments became much stronger than any other time. The current paper is aimed at briefly presenting the evolution of psychosomatic symptoms in DSM while pointing out the major milestones as well as the benefits and challenges along the way. We discuss the perspectives open with the advent of the 5th edition the DSM-V.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most widespread types of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection has been clearly correlated with gastric carcinogenesis. At present and in the near future, the most important challenge is and will be the significant reduction of mortality due to GC. That goal can be achieved through the identification of higher-risk patients, such as those with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. In this review we intend to discuss the importance of diagnosing H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis in preventing gastric cancer, using a new non-invasive test called GastroPanel. This test is a classification algorithm including four biochemical parameters pepsinogen I and II (PGI and PGII), gastrin-17 (G17), and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (Ig G anti-Hp) measured in fasting sera, which allows to classify patients as having atrophic or non-atrophic gastritis and to find whether gastritis is associated or not with H. pylori infection. GastroPanel is not a “cancer test”, but it can and should be used in the screening and diagnosis of subjects with a high cancer risk; still, a careful diagnostic made by superior digestive endoscopy is compulsory to find possible precancerous or cancerous lesions at an early and curable stage.
Camelia Bucsa, Andreea Farcas, D. Leucuta, Cristina Mogosan, M. Bojita and D.L. Dumitrascu
Introduction. The associations of drugs that may interact with the statins resulting in elevated serum concentration of the statins are an important risk factor for statin induced muscle disorders. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these associations in all hospitalized patients that had been prescribed statins before/during hospitalization and to find out how often they are associated with muscle-related side effects.
Methods. This prospective, non-interventional study performed in two internal medicine departments included patients with statin therapy before/during hospitalization. Data on each patient demographic characteristics, co-morbidities and treatment was collected from medical charts and interviews. We evaluated patients’ therapy for the targeted associations using Thomson Micromedex Drug Interactions checker and we ranked the identified drug-drug interactions (DDIs) accordingly. Each patient with statin treatment before admission was additionally interviewed in order to identify muscular symptoms.
Results. In 109 patients on statin treatment we found 35 potential (p) DDIs of statins in 30 (27.5%) patients, most of which were in the therapy before admission (27 pDDIs). The pDDIs were moderate (20 pDDIs) and major (15 pDDIs). Of the total number of pDDIs, 24 were targeting the muscular system. The drugs most frequently involved in the statins’ pDDIs were amiodarone and fenofibrate. Two of the patients with pDDIs reported muscle pain, both having additional risk factors for statin induced muscular effects.
Conclusion. The prevalence of statins’ pDDIs was high in our study, mostly in the therapy before admission, with only a small number of pDDIs resulting in clinical outcome.
Andreea Farcas, Camelia Bucsa, D. Leucuta, Cristina Mogosan, M. Bojita and D. Dumitrascu
Background. Muscular complaints are known side-effects of statin therapy, ranging from myalgia to clinically important myositis and rhabdomyolysis. We investigated the statin use and association with the presence and characteristics of muscular complaints.
Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study in internal medicine departments. Patients with statin therapy before hospitalization were interviewed for muscular complaints. When muscular complaints were reported, information on type and severity of muscular symptoms, location and time to onset was collected.
Results. We identified 85 patients with statin treatment at hospital admission out of 521 included. Nine (10.59%) patients reported muscular complaints associated with statin therapy. A cluster of symptoms (cramps, stiffness, decreased muscle power) was reported, affecting both upper and lower limbs. The severity of pain was in most of the cases moderate or severe. All patients reported that pain was intermittent. Five reported that pain was generalized. Symptoms appeared in the first month of treatment or three months after the drug initiation. Creatine kinase was raised in one patient. In two cases drug interactions were probably responsible for muscular complaints.
Conclusion. In the studied set of patients muscular symptoms were a rather frequent effect of statin therapy. As this side-effect could be troublesome for patients and could lead to more severe outcomes, their timely detection and management is important.
Alexandra-Mihaela Pop, Ioan Pop and Dănuţ D. Dumitraşcu
The communication process, a very important part in project management, is a subset of components that compete for their success. In this paper we present a model of the communication process for research projects through which we can obtain a work methodology in terms of communication efficiency. In the last part of the paper some test results are presented obtained by applying this model. Statistical representations, graphical views of data set analyses are made from machine learning methods for data mining. The aim is to obtain a relevant analysis of the communication process within research projects. The proposed model can also be the basis of future decisions made by project managers.