Background and Aims. We aimed to analyze the complications and mortality of acute abdomen cases in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Materials and Method. This observational, retrospective, cohort study was conducted between 2008 - 2011, on a total of 4021 cases with acute abdomen admitted to the Surgical Ward I of the Clinical County Emergency Hospital Oradea. Of these, 488 were diabetic patients and 3533 non-diabetics. Results. Women represented the majority in both groups (62.24% respectively 58.40%). Entero-mesenteric infarction and acute pancreatitis were more common in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics. Peritonitis was more frequent in non-diabetics, with statistically significant difference (p = 0.0003). In diabetic patients the postoperative morbidity was 36.27%, significantly higher than in non-diabetic patients (14.43%). The mortality was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics (9.84% vs. 5.38%). Average length of stay in Surgical Ward I is 3.8 days. For non-diabetic patients, mean hospitalization for acute abdomen was 5.1 days, and for diabetics 7.8 days. Conclusions. This study showed important differences between diabetics and non-diabetic patients in the clinical evolution, complications, mortality and length of hospitalization.