Gheorghe Romanescu, Denes Lóczy, József Dezső and Donatella Carboni
The study of loess and loess-like deposits in Romania has developed considerably, over the years. C14 dating determined that the last three glaciations (Mindel, Riss, Würm) and, at least, two interglacial periods were recorded in the Dobrudja Plateau. Five other paleosol layers indicate the succession of the Quaternary interglacial stations. The loess of Dobrudja, is about 50 m in thickness. The term loess-scape is comprised of all the processes and forms specific to these deposits, which create a unique landscape, with local peculiarities. Natural and anthropic conditions created loessoid microforms (clastokarst) specific to the Dobrudja Plateau. The friability of loess-like deposits, the heavy rains, the lack of vegetation, the existence of a steep slope and of a low basic level, led to the development of a marginal (border) clastokarst on the western and northern side of the plateau (on the right of Danube bank). The aim of this study is to rename the microforms specific to loess-like deposits and to highlight new ones: solution clastic dolines, collapse clastic dolines, clastic resurgences (intermittent karst springs), piping clastic glacis, collapse clastic glacis, proluvial clastic glacis, clastic micro-waterfalls with clastic micro-cauldrons, clastokarstic curtains (drapes), and so on. Consequently, the loess-scape in the Dobrudja Plateau is distinct, just like the karstic, volcanic, glacial landscape, and so on. New clastokarstic microforms were highlighted and efforts were made to establish a proper terminology.
József Dezső, Szabolcs Czigány, Gábor Nagy, Ervin Pirkhoffer, Marcin Słowik and Dénes Lóczy
The identification of drought-sensitive areas (DSAs) in floodplain Fluvisols of high textural pedodiversity is crucial for sustainable land management purposes. During extended drought periods moisture replenishment is only available by capillary rise from the groundwater. However, moisture flux is often hindered by capillary barriers in the interface between layers of contrasting textures. The results of HYDRUS-1D simulations run on multilayered soil profiles were integrated into textural maps to determine the spatial distribution of water dynamics on the floodplain of the Drava River (SW Hungary). Model runs and field data revealed limited moisture replenishment by capillary rise when both contrasting textural interfaces and sandy layers are present in the profile. By implementing these textural and hydraulic relations, a drought vulnerability map (DSA map) of the operational area of the Old Drava Programme (ODP) was developed. According to the spatial distribution of soils of reduced capillary rise, 52% of the ODP area is likely threatened by droughts. Our model results are adaptable for optimisation of land- and water-management practices along the floodplains of low-energy and medium-sized rivers under humid continental and maritime climates.
Jennifer Deriaz, Rok Ciglič, Mateja Ferk and Dénes Loczy
In several European countries, land use changes can be analysed on the basis of the Franciscan Cadastre. Present land use data is defined on the basis of orthophotos, but the historical data is available only at a parcel level. Therefore, a question arose as to how reliable results about land use changes can be. The main aim of the paper was to analyse land use dynamics with the Franciscan Cadastre and to test the compatibility of detailed and parcel level of modern data. The study was carried out by calculating land use structure and landscape metrics for a part of the Pannonian low-hills area in Slovenia. We have observed that the calculation of the land use type structure mostly provided similar results regardless of the level of detail. On the other hand, the results of landscape metrics analysis were highly affected by the level of detail. The analysis at the parcel level showed that the forest area expanded, and fields and vineyards areas diminished. In general, today’s landscape is made of less patches, but they are larger and of more irregular shapes. We can conclude that a comparison of modern data and historical data based on Franciscan Cadastre must include generalisation to a parcel level.