Very low frequency (VLF) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the concealed basement structures within the bedrock of Owena Dam in Igbara-Oke of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria. Five VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 5 m intervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component anomalies identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (piping and sloughing). The internal erosion (permeability) of soil mass eventually leads to the formation of an open conduit in the soil, which may lead to failure of the embankment/dam. The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 21 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment, with the deepest occurrence at Traverse 5. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the subsurface composition, which could lead to dam failure. The result of the study suggests that VLF is an adequate method of monitoring seepages in embankment dams.
Geological mapping and magnetic methods were applied for the exploration of iron ore deposits in the Akunu–Akoko area of Southwestern Nigeria for the purpose of evaluating their geological characteristics and resource potentials. A proton magnetometer measures the vertical, horizontal and total magnetic intensities in gammas. The subsurface geology was interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. The downward continuations and second vertical derivatives, the small-sized mineralised bodies and shallow features in the study area were mapped. The faults are trending in the following directions: NE–SW, NW–SE, N–S and E–W groups, while the iron ore mineralisation is structurally controlled by two major groups of fault trends, namely, the NE–SW and NW–SE; the N–S and E–W groups are mere occurrences that do not contribute to the structural control of the iron ore mineralisation in Akunu.
The upward continuation has a linear feature similar to the principal orientation of the regional faults, while Locations 2 and 3 have relatively high magnetic susceptibility zones; suspected to be iron ore deposits. The depths to the magnetic sources ranged from 25 m to about 250 m.
The IGRF filtered Aeromagnetic data over Iwo, southwestern part of Nigeria within the basement complex was subjected to reduction to magnetic equator filtering, residual filtering, upward and downward continuation filtering, automatic gain control filtering, tilt angle derivative, second vertical derivative, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. This reveals the geologic information such as structural trend. Based on the result of the total magnetic intensity map, reduction to equator map, analytical signal map and residual magnetic intensity map, it can be concluded that; The rocks in the study area have a trend of approximately northeast-southwest direction as seen on the upward continuation map. Most of the delineated lineaments found within the study area strike mostly in NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE with minor trend of E-W and ENE-WSW direction. Structural lineament orientation suggested that they were products of Pan-African orogeny (NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends) and pre-Pan-African orogeny (NNW-SSE and E-W trend). The interpretation of the aeromagnetic dataset gave an insight into the regional geology and structural trends of the area.
Cyril Okpoli, Michael Oladunjoye and Toluwaleke Ajayi
An integrated geophysical (involving two-dimensional [2D] electrical resistivity) and petrophysical study was conducted in the Precambrian Crystalline Basement area of Iwaro-oka Akoko, southwestern Nigeria. Five 2D resistivity profiles, both around the perimeters and inside the dump, were investigated with maximum lengths of 100 m. Results of the resistivity imaging delineated the leachate plumes as low-resistivity zones, with values ranging from 3 Ω m to 55 Ω m. The coefficient of permeability ranged from 4.33 × 10-6 to 7.82 × 10-3, and the average porosity ranged from 32 Ω m to 169 Ω m, thus indicating migration of leachate plume to the groundwater due to the high coefficient of permeability and the porosity.