Éva Ujvári-Jármay, László Nagy and Csaba Mátyás
Csaba Lantos, Barnabás Jenes, Lajos Bóna, Mátyás Cserháti and János Pauk
This is the first study to report an efficient anther culture (AC) method for spelt wheat, which has an increasing importance not only in applied research but also in organic farming and changing nutritional standards. In this study, an efficient AC protocol has been described for ‘GK Fehér’ spelt wheat. The number of AC-derived embryo-like structures (ELS) was 62.2/100 anthers, from which we were able to regenerate 30.6 green plantlets per 100 anthers. The percentage of green plantlets production was 89.0% among the regenerated plantlets, while the phenomenon of albinism was restricted (3.8/100 anthers). Altogether, from AC of ‘GK Fehér’ 306 green plantlets were produced in vitro and 241 plants were acclimatized to the greenhouse conditions. Based on ploidy level analyses, 83 spontaneous doubled haploid (DH) plants were produced (8.3 DH plants/100 anthers), so the percentage of spontaneous rediploidization was 34.4%. The spontaneous DH plants produced fertile spikes, while a few seeds were harvested from seven partially fertile plants.
Josef Frýdl, Jaroslav Dostál, František Beran, Jiří Čáp, Martin Fulín, John Frampton, Gregor Božič and Csaba Mátyás
The growth of seven exotic true fir (Abies) species and native Abies alba have been compared in three provenance trials in the Czech Republic, at the relatively advanced ages of 44, 38, and 35 years respectively. A clear differentiation is observable between the species. The closely related species group of A. alba and A. cephalonica appears rather heterogeneous in its phenotypic behavior. A. alba provenances show superiority, but also a high differentiation. Productivity of provenances of A. cephalonica fall behind A. alba; however A. cilicica and A. pinsapo provenances have shown total mortality. The high potential of A. grandis is confirmed by outstanding growth; provenances from the coastal plain in Washington State performed best. A. procera grows slower than A. grandis, but still faster than A. alba provenances. Health risks, extreme ecologic distances of transfer, trend shifts of growth rate, and rank change with age are uncertainties that require necessary caution when selecting provenances for importation. In recent years, public and institutional perceptions concerning the introduction of non-native tree species and provenances has shifted, and the practice is no longer seen as necessarily inappropriate.
Tomáš Hlásny, Csaba Mátyás, Rupert Seidl, Ladislav Kulla, Katarína Merganičová, Jiří Trombik, Laura Dobor, Zoltán Barcza and Bohdan Konôpka
The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher share of drought tolerant species as well as the use of drought resistant provenances are identified as paramount actions in forest adaptation in the region. Adaptation to aggravating climate change may need to use artificial regeneration to enrich local gene pools and increase the drought tolerance of stands. Increasing risks from pests, pathogens and other disturbances are expected as a result of more frequent and severe droughts, underlining the need to put a stronger focus on risk management principles rather than on indicators of productivity in silviculture and forest planning. A consolidation of disturbance monitoring systems and a broader use of pest dynamics and hazard rating models are paramount tools to facilitate this adaptation process in forest management. The effectiveness of all the suggested measures needs to be controlled by efficient forest monitoring systems, the consolidation of which seems to be a timely task. Systematic and long-term implementation of the presented measures should increase forest stability and resilience, and further secure the sustainable provision of ecosystem services under climate change.