Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) characterized by two or more of the following: fever > 38.5 °C or <36 °C, tachycardia, medium respiratory frequency over two SD for age, increased number of leukocytes.
The following is a case of an eight months old, female infant, admitted in to the clinic for fever (39.7 C), with an onset five days before the admission, following trauma to the inferior lip and gum. Other than the trauma to the lip and gum, a clinical exam did not reveal any other pathological results. The laboratory tests showed leukocytosis, positive acute phase reactants (ESR 105 mm/h, PCR 85 mg/dl), with positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus MSSA. at 24 hours. Three days from admission, despite the administration of antibiotics (Vancomycin+Meronem), there was no remission of fever, and the infant developed a fluctuant collection above the knee joint. This was drained, and was of a serous macroscopic nature. A decision was made to perform a CT, which confirmed the diagnosis of septic arthritis. At two days after the intervention, the fever reappeared, therefore the antibiotic regime were altered (Oxacillin instead of Vancomycin), resulting in resolution of the fever. Sepsis in infant is a complex pathology, with non-specific symptoms and unpredictable evolution.