Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx represent a rare group of neoplasms characterized by pathological and biological heterogeneity. The histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis is the most important step in the appropriate management of these tumors and the prognosis varies according to histological types. Conventional anatomical and functional imaging can be complementary for diagnosis, staging and monitoring of treatment response. Material and methods. Here we report on a case of a laryngeal neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old man who was referred to our clinic for clinical reevaluation, diagnosis and treatment. The clinical presentation, the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination and management of this kind of tumor are highlighted. Conclusion. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are very aggressive neoplasms. Patients could benefit from surgery, but radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the treatment of choice. Very low incidence of neuroendocrine tumors in the larynx and specifically very poor prognosis of neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma encouraged an extensive literature review.
BACKGROUND. Innate immunity represents the first way of protection against different pathogenic agents. Recently, it has been a permanent interest regarding an innate immune molecule, that is known as palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC). PLUNC is a specific result found in the airways, of approximately 25 kDa, whose encoding is realized by adjacent genes located within a region of 300 kb in chromosome 20; these proteins must be detected predominantly in the superior respiratory tract.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective clinical study on 34 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 10 controls, in order to investigate the expression of this protein in nasal tissue of patients affected by chronic rhinosinusitis. We tested the correlation between the existence of this disease and PLUNC proteins positivity.
RESULTS. 100% of controls have a+++ rated PLUNC proteins positivity, while cases have a lower percentage of positivity. There were no differences statistically significant between patients with CRSwNP and those with CRSsNP.
CONCLUSION. As a response to different irritating agents (bacteria, viruses, chemical factors), nasal mucosa will react by producing PLUNC proteins. PLUNC proteins have a defensive role in the upper airways mucosa.
Background: Fungal infections are a health issue paradoxically fuelled by the developments in medical care. Objectives: Our study is an investigation on the correlation between the infection site and the genotypes of Candida albicans strains isolated from Romanian patients. Methods: A total number of 301 isolates from different clinical sites were investigated in terms of genotype determination. Results: The isolates were clustered in three groups according to their genotype: 55.81% showed genotype A, 14.62% genotype B, and 29.57% genotype C. Conclusions: No significant correlation was found between the genotype and the infection site, but a significant correlation was found between genotype C and isolates from HIV patients proving that C. albicans pathogenicity probably relies on factors related to the host.