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Elena-Emilia Oprescu, Emil Stepan, Paul Rosca, Adrian Radu and Cristina-Emanuela Enăşcuţă

Abstract

This paper discusses the synthesis of a glycerol ketal compound obtained from condensation reaction of cyclohexanone with glycerol catalyzed by a solid superacid. The solid superacid SO4 2-/TiO2-La2O3 was prepared using coprecipitation and impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The surface acidity was measured by thermogravimetric analysis of adsorbed n-butylamine. In order to achieve the optimal reaction conditions, five impact factors: molar ratio of glycerol to cyclohexanone, catalyst calcination temperature, reaction time, catalyst amount and molar ratio of Ti/La were investigated in the experiments. Synthesized ketal compounds were analyzed by GC-MS/MS. Under the best conditions, the cyclohexanone glycerol ketal yield could reach up to 97%.

Open access

Mihaela-Doina Niculescu, Doru-Gabriel Epure, Magdalena Lasoń-Rydel, Carmen Gaidau, Mihai Gidea and Cristina Enascuta

Abstract

In the present research biocomposites based on extracts of collagen and keratin recovered from the leather industry by-products were made and the specific properties for applications in agriculture and industry were studied. To this aim, collagen and keratin have been extracted from bovine leather and sheep wool by-products and have been added and crosslinked with recognized compounds for reduced environmental impact (glycerol, vegetable tanning extract, essential oils with fungicidal properties and insecticides). The biocomposite properties were evaluated on the basis of complex analytical investigations on chemical structure, texture, contact angle, mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability and water absorption, biodegradation, germination and plant biomass growth. The biocomposites have demonstrated pelliculogenic properties and nitrogen controlled release to stimulate germination and nutrition of rape seedlings, which promotes them for agricultural applications, but also other surface properties have been identified, for industrial applications, for example in leather finishing for special destinations. Addition of odorous principles with controlled release recommends this type of biocomposites for environmentally friendly products, maintenance of cleaning, etc.