Background: The number of studies on oral complications in children with Down syndrome is substantial, but they are focused rather on the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, and hypodontia. The relationship between Down syndrome and dental eruption has been rarely approached. The causes of delayed eruption in children with Down syndrome are incompletely elucidated due to the incomplete identification of the factors that intervene in the physiological process of dental eruption.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the correlation between Down syndrome and the delayed eruption of permanent teeth, in relation to the chronological age, in this category of patients.
Material and methods: The study group included 94 children with mixed dentition, of ages between 6 and 12 years: 36 children with Down syndrome and 58 healthy children. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed, focusing on the relation between dental age and chronological age.
Results: The presence of Down syndrome in children has a significant influence (p <0.001) on the delayed eruption of permanent teeth, considering the chronological age, compared to healthy children. The weighted average of this delay in our study group was 1.27.
Conclusions: It is necessary to monitor children with Down syndrome for an extended period of time, in order to ensure a high quality of life and to optimize their health as much as possible.
About 50% of tooth loss is caused by either endodontic infection, periodontal disease or the combination of the two in the form on endo-perio lesions (EPL). Combined EPL develop due to the intimate anatomic and functional relation between endodontic and periodontal tissues. Both the pulp and periodontium share the same embryologic and anatomic origin. The various pathways connecting the two, added up to the extremely alike microorganisms in both illnesses’ etiology, create a complex condition in which interdisciplinary approach is required. Despite numerous decades of literature describing these lesions, they remain a continuous challenge for practitioners in both diagnosing and managing. The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive review of various aspects of the combined EPL and to emphasize the importance of making a correct diagnosis and adopting the appropriate treatment method in the management of these challenging situations.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that most frequently affects children, and its treatment involves intensive chemotherapy, which might interfere with the normal development of dental tissues. The aim of our study was to measure the incidence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasia in children diagnosed with ALL treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-95 (ALL-BFM-95) protocol during the complete remission phase. Two groups of children between 8-12 years of age were investigated: Group 1 consisted of 36 children with ALL, and Group 2 of 58 control age-matched children. The decay-missing-filling index for the deciduous teeth (DMFT) and the presence of hypoplasia in the first permanent molars (MH) or in both incisors and molars (MIH) were recorded. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that there were no differences between the groups regarding the DMFT values (p >0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of MH and MIH between groups (p <0.05). According to our results, chemotherapy was not responsible for the decay process, as there were no differences in DMFT indices between the groups, but the high incidence of MH and MIH in the ALL group indicates the need of a good dental care for these children in order to prevent future dental complications.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common digestive disorder, which occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach returns into the esophagus to some extent, reaching the mouth, thereby increasing the frequency of dental erosion and caries. Since saliva plays a huge role in oral homeostasis, it is important to examine the role of this parameter in the appearance of the above mentioned oral lesions. The aim of our study was evaluate the oral condition of children suffering from reflux disease and to assess the relationship between salivary pH and the incidence of dental erosion and caries. In this prospective study we examined 25 children diagnosed with GERD, referred for hospitalization. Bedside intra-oral examination (DMFT index, gingival index) and strip method pH value determination was performed. We observed that patients with low pH values had increased caries frequency, and dental erosion was also noticeable. Statistical significance was determined comparing the DMFT index in groups with different pH values. We concluded that the high number of erosions is closely related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, as a consequence of the low pH value, which represents the main cause of oral manifestations in GERD.
Introduction: Pediatric Dentistry offers a completely different approach compared to that of adults especially in terms of patient cooperation, problems with growth and development and problems related to dental restoration in the context of a developing dentition.
Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of primary and secondary dental dystrophies among preschool and school-age children.
Material and Methods: The group of 113 subjects with ages between 3 and 11 years was selected from two primary and preschool education establishments from Târgu-Mures. Simultaneously with the clinical examination of dental surfaces, 150 questionnaires were distributed to the parents of the subjects. The dystrophies determined clinically were arranged in a certain category of number, form, volume and structure and were correlated with the answers to the questionnaires.
Results: According to the data most cases of dental dystrophies are represented by dental fluorosis followed by severe early childhood caries S-ECC, and in equal percentages are present dyschromia, imperfect amelogenesis, MIH hypomineralization, dental fusion, macrodontia and hyperdontia.
Conclusions: There are significant correlations between the primary dental dystrophies and factors that intervened during pregnancy and in the post-natal period, both critical periods for dental formation and development.