Ješeta Michal, Chmelíková Eva, Crha Igor, Sedmíková Markéta, Žáková Jana and Ventruba Pavel
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are chemical substances that affect physiological processes in the organism via hormonal regulation. The EDs are present in the environment and objects of everyday use. They are often detected in food, particularly released from packaging of canned food, but also from plastic water bottles, and they are also found in cosmetics and fertilizers. They are commonly detected in children's toys, banknotes, receipts and many more objects. Permanent and long-term utilization of EDs has harmful effects on human reproductive health mainly by interference with sex hormone synthesis and mechanism of action. The endocrine disruptors show many negative effects on male reproductive system. Any change during synthesis or activity of sex hormones can cause abnormal reproduction, including developmental anomalies of the sexual system, disruption of testicular development or deterioration of sperm quality. Mainly the impact on the development of testicles in prenatal and early postnatal period can be crucial for reproductive health in males. This review provides an overview of the EDs and their possible impact on reproductive health in males with focus on sperm quality and development of testicles.
Michal Ješeta, Eliska Boženková, Jana Žá Žáková, Pavel Ventruba, Igor Crha, Eva Lousová, Petra Coufalová and Bartosz Kempisty
Correct selection of spermatozoa before their using for an assisted reproductive techniques is one of the crucial step in therapy of human infertility. It was previously reported that male factor plays a major role in infertility. Basic semen analyses and standard methods for sperm selection in many cases does not eliminate sufficiently proportion of spermatozoa with genetics defects. Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) is a selection method which reduce apoptotic sperm and improve sperm and embryo quality. The aim of our study was the comparison of swim-up method and MACS and their combination. We tested swim-up and MACS alone and treatment of spermatozoa in combination when was is first swim-up and second MACS and vice versa. In this study we evaluated sperm concentration, motility and their DNA integrity before and after separtion methods. On the basis of our results we recommend to use swim-up before MACS method. This approach brings better results in the sperm selection - lower proportion of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA and also it brings better gain of total spermatozoa usable for next IVF or ICSI methods.
Jana Žáková, Igor Crha, Ladislava Jelínková, Tonko Mardešic, Zlatko Pastor, Pavel Trávník, Bartosz Kempisty, Pavel Ventruba and Michal Ješeta
Assisted reproduction is a very dynamic part of reproductive gynaecology with fast changes in therapeutic approaches resulting from intensive research supported by private or public companies. This progress brings also new questions regarding ethical, legal or therapeutic issues. At the 26th Czech-Slovak symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno, several interesting topics of assisted reproduction were presented. During two days, more than 350 specialists discussed current topics related to gynaecology, embryology, andrology, genetics and sexology. From this fruitful discussion we chose the following topics that we consider to be the most important: (1) “Soft” versus “standard” stimulation protocols for IVF (2) Use of exogenous and endogenous progestins in IVF stimulation protocols (3) Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue - state of the art and situation in the Czech Republic (4) Selection of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA: practical recommendations (5) Artificial activation of oocytes (8) Access of single and lesbian women to assisted reproduction technologies and possibility of their reproduction in the Czech Republic. Panel conclusions were presented at the end of the conference, which had great attendance, invoked lively commentaries and produced some definitive consensus. Certain issues remained inconclusive and these matters will be the subject of further discussion in future. This is a summary of the most important theses from this field in the Czech Republic in 2017.