In the past decades the preoccupation of decision-makers towards innovation and sustainable development has gained a major importance in the policy of most countries in Europe. On one hand, efficient innovation can differentiate a country or a region from another and make a difference in the intense increasing economic, technological and social competition. On the other hand, the orientation towards sustainable development assures a clean and unpolluted, social oriented and healthy environment as a framework for the growth of a country or a region. In many cases, innovation and sustainable development go hand in hand, as innovations contribute to the development of clean technologies, while sustainable societies assure the proper environment and background for stimulating the innovation research. The objective of this research is to determine the cluster of countries in Europe which are rather oriented to innovation or to sustainable development or both and to forecast their future developments and tendencies. In order to achieve this objective, the multivariate cluster analysis was applied with the help of the SPSS program, for data provided by the Eurostat for several innovation, sustainable development and contextual indicators. In a first step, for each of the analyzed countries, the values of the indicators have been collected for the same period and the correlations among them have been determined. In the second phase the number of clusters and the cluster membership of each country was determined, by running the Ward cluster analysis. Based on the results, the characteristics of each cluster of countries was defined.
The preoccupation towards environmental issues within companies has increased in the past years. On one hand, companies now aim at cleaner, environmental products or production lines. On the other hand, many companies have started to invest in different CSR projects, having as objective different environmental issues. In this article we focus on a set of aspects and indicators reported by energy companies, regarding their environmental performance. The need for a cleaner environment has determined policy makers and different organizations to adopt several guidelines referring to environmental activities of companies. Based on the CSR and sustainability reports of 92 top energy companies, we analyze the main environmental aspects and indicators which were revealed by these organizations in year 2015. Results of this qualitative analysis could contribute to the assessment of the extent to which environmental standards are currently taken into account by energy companies.
The analysis and determination of typologies of tourism consumers has been a major concern for scientists, specialists and companies as well. Knowing the demographic and motivational factors that determine consumers to buy tourism products can have a major impact on the marketing strategy by a more efficient targeting of customers. This article presents the results of a research that aims to determine the factors which influence the buying decision for tourism products and the clusters of consumers resulted from these factors. 90 persons have been surveyed pursuing the determination of the most important factors for buying a tourism product and the correlation between them. The factor analysis and the cluster analysis have been applied with the help of the SPSS program. The results of the factor analysis group the items into six factors. In a second phase, the consumers have been divided into three categories based on a hierarchical Ward cluster analysis. The three clusters have been defined and analyzed and recommendations for the future research have been given.
The relation between the personality of consumers and their buying behavior has been a very much debated topic in the field of marketing researches. Several studies have shown that personality has a significant influence on the way consumer behave in their social and economic environment, in the way they approach and accept innovations and new developed products or even in their shopping behavior. This paper presents the influence of the Myers-Briggs personality dichotomies on the impulsive consumer behavior and the openness to buy newly launched products. Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate primary collected data and the core results show that extroverted, feeling-based decision-makers and perception oriented persons have more frequently an impulsive buying behavior at shopping sessions. Extroverts and intuition based consumers are more open to new products. The temptation to buy attractive unplanned products is higher for extroverts, feeling based decision makers and perceiving persons. Despite of this, none of the personality dichotomies influences the amount and care for spending in stores, this being influenced by other independent factors, mainly economic ones.
The development and increased popularity of the social media networks has changed the way consumers communicate and interact with each other. But besides the positive aspects regarding socializing, real-time communication and information sharing, the social media networks have also several disadvantages. Private data security, invasion of privacy, misuse of information are just some of the negative aspects associated to social media networks, of which many of the consumers are not aware. This paper gives an overview of the different methods in which private consumer data and consumer profiles are created with the help of social media networks. The paper focuses on three main components, namely the data provided by the consumers, the technologies that have the ability to collect data in an aware or unaware manner and the contribution and advantages of business in this process. The results show that some of the data are given by the consumer, while other are just gathered with the help of automated and intelligent systems or applications.
This paper presents the results of a research about the differences of behavior between two generations. Pairs of consumers consisting of a young consumer and one of his/her parents were questioned about different aspects of life. By applying the Euclidian Metric, the similarities and differences were determined for the examined issues. The results of the research show that for traditional product groups like medical services, education system, the consumers of the two generations have a similar behavior. For product groups related to the online environment such as social networks, mobile/smart phones, the consumers of the two generations show higher differences. Higher differences can be also observed for social groups, as the young generation has an inclination for doing spare time activities with their friends, such as going out, going on holiday. The results of the research have an impact on the way in which consumer’s reference groups are going to be used in marketing communication campaigns.
Celebrity endorsement has been frequently used in advertising as consumers are attracted and tend to imitate the behavior of the star. In the past years, celebrities have been a frequent mean of attracting the attention of the consumer towards an advertising. In an era with an over-load of information and ads, the glamour of the celebrities has had the power to increase the visibility of the advertised product. Besides the positive effects which celebrities bring to an increase of attention of the consumers, their endorsement can also have negative consequences. One of these undesired effects is the overshadowing of the advertised product by the celebrity. Consumers will have the tendency to watch the celebrity for a longer time and their attention is distracted from the advertised product. In an eye-tracking experiment we analyze the fact that the celebrity might distract the attention of the consumer from the advertised product and its logo. The results have shown that the participants have the tendency to watch the logo of a product for a longer time in advertising without celebrities. In opposition to this, in advertising endorsing celebrities, the attention is caught by the celebrity.