Lactobacillus plantarum SKT109 was isolated and identified from Tibet Kefir, and the exopolysaccharride (EPS)-producing properties of the strain were evaluated. Growth of strain SKT109 in a semi-defined medium at 37°C increased the viscosity of the medium, corresponding to production of an EPS (58.66 mg/L). The EPS was isolated and purified, and it was shown to consist of fructose and glucose in an approximate molar ratio of 3:1, with an average molecular weight of 2.1×106 Da. The aqueous solution of EPS at 1% (w/v) exhibited shear thinning behavior. Microstructural studies of the EPS demonstrated a highly compact structure with a smooth surface, facilitating formation of film by the polymer; the EPS was composed of many different sizes of spherical lumps with tendency to form molecular aggregates. Studies on the milk fermentation characteristics of L. plantarum SKT109 showed that the strain survived well in fermented milk with counts about 8.0 log cfu/g during 21 days of storage at 4°C. The use of the EPS-producing strain improved the rheology of the fermented milk without causing post-acidification during storage. Particularly, L. plantarum SKT109 improved the fermented milk flavor by increasing the concentration of characteristic flavor compounds and eliminating those with dis gusting flavors. The results of the present study indicated that EPS-producing L. plantarum SKT109 could serve as a promising candidate for further exploitation in fermented foods.
Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused severe economic losses in pig production in many countries. Recent CSF outbreaks in China are mainly associated with sub-genotype 2.1 of CSF virus (CSFV). Although there is abundant information regarding 2.1 isolates, few data are available on whole-genome analysis.
Material and Methods
The biological and genome characteristics of three recently emerged Chinese CSFV isolates, i.e. SD2014-1, SD2014-2, and SD2014-3, were fully analysed.
Sequence analysis showed that the isolates shared 83.4%–95.0% nucleotide identity with eight other CSFV isolates. In addition, the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and the non-structural (NS) proteins NS3, NS4A, and NS4B were more conserved than other regions of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequences or full-length structural protein E2 gene sequences revealed that the three isolates belonged to sub-genotype 2.1b. In addition, several unique molecular characteristics of the 5′UTR, 3′UTR, and E2 were identified.
The genomic variations of the three isolates will support further analysis of virulence determinants and the evolutionary trend of CSFV.