Claudiu Puiac, Janos Szederjesi, Alexandra Lazar, Emoke Almasy, Paul Rad and Lucian Puscasiu
Introduction: Intraabdominal pressure monitoring is not routinely performed because the procedure assumes some invasiveness and, like other invasive procedures, it needs to have a clear indication to be performed. The causes of IAH are various. Mechanically ventilated patients have numerous parameters set in order to be optimally ventilated and it is important to identify the ones with the biggest interference in abdominal pressure. Although it was stated that mechanical ventilation is a potential factor of high intraabdominal pressure the set parameters which may lead to this diagnostic are not clearly named.
Objectives: To evaluate the relation between intraabdominal pressure and ventilator parameters in patients with mechanical ventilation and to determine the correlation between intraabdominal pressure and body mass index. Material and method: This is an observational study which enrolled 16 invasive ventilated patients from which we obtained 61 record sheets. The following parameters were recorded twice daily: ventilator parameters, intraabdominal pressure, SpO2, Partial Oxygen pressure of arterial blood. We calculated the Body Mass Index (BMI) for each patient and the volume tidal/body weight ratio for every recorded data point.
Results: We observed a significant correlation between intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and the value of PEEP (p=0.0006). A significant statistical correlation was noted regarding the tidal volumes used for patient ventilation. The mean tidal volume was 5.18 ml/kg. Another significant correlation was noted between IAP and tidal volume per kilogram (p=0.0022). A positive correlation was found between BMI and IAP (p=0.0049), and another one related to the age of the enrolled patients. (p=0.0045).
Conclusions: The use of positive end-expiratory pressures and high tidal volumes during mechanical ventilation may lead to the elevation of intraabdominal pressure, a possible way of reducing this risk would be using low values of PEEP and also low volumes for the setting of ventilation parameters. There is a close positive correlation between the intraabdominal pressure levels and body mass index.
Claudiu Puiac, Theodora Benedek, Lucian Puscasiu, Nora Rat, Emoke Almasy and Janos Szederjesi
Objective: To demonstrate the relationship between intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and cardiac output (CO) in mechanically ventilated (MV), critically ill patients.
Material and methods: This was a single-center, prospective study performed between January and April 2016, on 30 mechanically ventilated patients (mean age 67.3 ± 11.9 years), admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Emergency County Hospital of Tîrgu Mureș, Romania, who underwent measurements of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – IAP <12 mmHg (n = 21) and group 2 – IAP >12 mmHg (n = 9). In 23 patients who survived at least 3 days post inclusion, the variation of CO and IAP between baseline and day 3 was calculated, in order to assess the variation of IAP in relation to the hemodynamic status.
Results: IAP was 8.52 ± 1.59 mmHg in group 1 and 19.88 ± 8.05 mmHg in group 2 (p <0.0001). CO was significantly higher in group 1 than in the group with IAH: 6.96 ± 2.07 mmHg (95% CI 6.01–7.9) vs. 4.57 ± 1.23 mmHg (95% CI 3.62–5.52) (p = 0.003). Linear regression demonstrated an inverse correlation between CO and IAP (r = 0.48, p = 0.007). Serial measurements of CO and IAP proved that whenever accomplished, the decrease of IAP was associated with a significant increase in CO (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: CO is significantly correlated with IAP in mechanically ventilated patients, and IAH reduction is associated with increase of CO in these critically ill cases.
Claudiu Puiac, Janos Szederjesi, Alexandra Lazăr, Codruța Bad and Lucian Pușcașiu
Introduction: Elevated intraabdominal pressure (IAP) it is known to have an impact on renal function trough the pressure transmitted from the abdominal cavity to the vasculature responsible for the renal blood flow. Intraabdominal pressure is found to be frequent in intensive care patients and also to be a predictor of mortality. Intra-abdominal high pressure is an entity that can have serious impact on intensive care admitted patients, studies concluding that if this condition progresses to abdominal compartment syndrome mortality is as high as 80%.
Aim: The aim of this study was to observe if a link between increased intraabdominal pressure and modification in renal function exists (NGAL, creatinine clearance).
Material and Method: The study enrolled 30 critically ill patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of SCJU Tîrgu Mures between November 2015 and August 2016. The study enrolled adult, hemodynamically stable patients admitted in intensive critical care - defined by a normal blood pressure maintained without any vasopressor or inotropic support, invasive monitoring using PICCO device and abdominal pressure monitoring.
Results: The patients were divided into two groups based on the intraabdominal pressure values: normal intraabdominal pressure group= 52 values and increased intraabdominal group= 35 values. We compared the groups in the light of NGAL values, 24 hours diuresis, GFR and creatinine clearance. The groups are significantly different when compared in the light of NGAL values and GFR values. We obtained a statistically significant correlation between NGAL value and 24 hour diuresis. No other significant correlations were encountered between the studied items.
Conclusions: NGAL values are increased in patients with high intraabdominal pressure which may suggest its utility as a cut off marker for patients with increased intraabdominal pressure. There is a significant decreased GFR in patient with elevated intraabdominal pressure, observation which can help in early detection of renal injury in patients due to high intraabdominal pressure. No correlation was found between creatinine clearance and increased intraabdominal pressure.