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Open access

Cristian Dinu, Radu Drobot, Claudiu Pricop and Tudor Viorel Blidaru

Abstract

The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in modelling the hydrological processes has become a common approach in the last two decades, among side the traditional methods. In regard to the rainfall-runoff modelling, in both traditional and ANN models the use of ground rainfall measurements is prevalent, which can be challenging in areas with low rain gauging station density, especially in catchments where strong focused rainfall can generate flash-floods. The weather radar technology can prove to be a solution for such areas by providing rain estimates with good time and space resolution. This paper presents a comparison between different ANN setups using as input both ground and radar observations for modelling the rainfall-runoff process for Bahluet catchment, with focus on a flash-flood observed in the catchment.

Open access

Cristian Dinu, Radu Drobot, Claudiu Pricop and Tudor Viorel Blidaru

Abstract

The rainfall-runoff transformation is a highly complex dynamic process and the development of fast and robust modelling instruments has always been one of the most important topics for hydrology. Over time, a significant number of hydrological models have been developed with a clear trend towards a process-based approach. The downside of these types of models is the significant amount of data required for building the model and for the calibration process: in practice, the collection of all necessary data for such models proves to be a difficult task. In order to cope with this issue, various data-driven modelling techniques have been introduced for hydrological modelling as an alternative to more traditional approaches, on the basis of their capacity of mapping out complex relationships from observation data. Having the capacity to generate meaningful mathematical structures as results, genetic programming (GP) presents a high potential for rainfall-runoff modelling as a data-driven method. Using ground and radar rainfall observation, the aim of this study is to investigate the GP technique capability for modelling the rainfall-runoff process, taking into consideration a flash-flood event.

Open access

Isabela Balan, Irina Dana Tutunaru, Claudiu Pricop and Ioan Balan

Abstract

The dam of the non-permanent reservoir Ezer, located on Jijia river is an earth dam with a maximum height of 6.18 m, which provides a global retention to the canopy of 10.330 million cubic meters. The dam founded on weak, muddy soils suffered in the years 1989 and 1992 downstream slope failures of the fillings. It was found that hydrostatic levels were high in the piezometric wells and that consolidation of the foundation soil was reduced. This paper presents a brief history of the dam and aspects regarding the behaviour monitoring of Ezer non-permanent reservoir during the years 2000-2012.

Open access

Isabela Balan, Loredana Crenganiş and Claudiu Pricop

Abstract

This paper analyzes the flood that occurred between 11th and 13th of September 2013 in the upper catchment of the river Geru. The flood was simulated using the program Mike by DHI with the Unitary Hydrograph Method. As input data, we used the precipitation measured at the Automated Hydrological Sensor Station Cudalbi and radar precipitations. We analyzed the importance of accuracy for input data on the simulation results and the direct influence of setting the proper time steps in achieving the simulated discharge hydrograph. It appears that radar precipitations used as input data lead to a discharge hydrograph with low errors for amplitude and phase of the runoff peak.

The model can be used in the future to reproduce the floods produced in the analyzed catchment and to study the influence of physical and geographical characteristics of the hillslopes.

Open access

Isabela Balan, Loredana Crenganiş, Flaviana Corduneanu, Claudiu Pricop and Loredana Andreea Popoiu

Abstract

MIKE software created by Danish Institute of Hydraulics can be used to perform mathematical modelling of rainfall-runoff process on the hillslopes, resulting in a runoff hydrograph in the closing section of a catchment. The software includes a unitary hydrograph method - UHM in the hydrological module Rainfall - Runoff. Excess rainfall is routed to the river and transited through unit hydrograph method. The model divides the flood generating precipitation in excess rainfall (net rainfall) and losses (infiltration).

This paper analyzes data from the flash flood that occurred between the 11th and 13th of September 2013 in the upper catchment of the river Geru. The catchment chosen for study, is controlled by the hydrometric station located in the village Cudalbi. Simulations of this flash flood were performed with MIKE by DHI –UHM software, alternatively using as input data the precipitations recorded by AHSS (Automated Hydrological Sensor Station) Cudalbi and radar precipitations generated by ROFFG (Romanian Flash Flood Guidance) software system in ArcGIS module for determining the areas affected by flash floods. The Unitary Hydrograph Method - UHM from the hydrological module Rainfall – Runoff calculates excess rainfall and determines infiltration losses by four methods. For each set of input data, the four methods for calculating infiltration losses were subsequently used.

The comparison between the results highlights that the amplitude and phase errors for the maximum discharge are smaller when the model uses for simulation radar precipitations as input data, and calculates infiltration losses with the Proportional Loss method. This method reproduces with a better accuracy the peaks of the discharge hydrograph. The model can be used in the future to forecast a discharge hydrograph based on estimated radar precipitations in the catchment