Simulation of the Stock of Electric Appliances and Calculation of Standby Losses for Latvia
Standby losses in households are discussed in this paper. As there was no information on the total volume of standby losses in Latvia, the objective of the study was to calculate: the percentage from the household total electricity bill that goes to standby losses; what are the total costs for these losses; and how much CO2 is produced to generate the amount of electricity that is needed to cover these standby losses. All calculations were conducted for one and for all households in Latvia and the results of one household were compared with an average European household. Finally, the savings potential that can be obtained implementing the Eco-design Directive and other political instruments was examined.
Possibilities for Utilization of Solar Thermal Energy in Multi-Family Buildings in Latvia
The paper is focused on analysis of the current situation for the solar thermal system market in Latvia. Solar energy potential and solar thermal market development in Latvia is compared with those in the countries, where solar irradiation is equivalent to that of the Latvian climate.
This research also includes a description of the solar and pellet combisystem installed for a demonstration pilot project; the main parameters of this system are identified and the performance data for the first month of operations is analysed.
An economic analysis for different heat supply scenarios from simulation data and real performance of the system is shown.
Ilze Dzene, Claudio Rochas, Dagnija Blumberga, Marika Rosa and Andris Erdmanis
Energy Recovery from End-of-Life Tyres: Untapped Possibility to Reduce CO2 Emissions
In this paper the possibility to reduce CO2 emissions by energy recovery from waste tyres is discussed. The objective of the study is to analyze the end-of-life tyre market in Latvia, to assess the amount of used tyres available and to calculate the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by energy recovery from tyres in mineral products industry. Calculation results show that an improved collection and combustion of end-of-life tyres in the cement industry can save up to 17% of the present CO2 emissions in the mineral products industry.
Alona Bolonina, Claudio Rochas, Inese Kibure, Marika Rosa and Dagnija Blumberga
Compact Solar Combisystem for an Apartment Building
The Riga Technical University Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, in cooperation with three Latvian companies, is implementing the project "Compact solar and pellet module" financed by the European Union. Within the framework of this project a combisystem will be installed in the Grandeg Ltd modular pellet boiler house. The solar combisystem will provide domestic hot water and space heating load for an apartment building in Sigulda. Due to the limited amount of space in the modular boiler house, optimal decisions should be made on the technical parameters of the system, including the volume of the heat storage tank and the surface area of solar collectors. Every alternative has both advantages and disadvantages. Economic factors of various alternatives are analyzed.
Methods of Nitrogen Oxide Reduction in Pellet Boilers
The main goal of this research was to create and test technical solutions that reduce nitrogen oxide emissions in low-capacity pellet boiler. During the research, wood pellets were incinerated in a pellet boiler produced in Latvia with a rated capacity of 15 kW. During the research two NOx emission reduction methods were tested: secondary air supply in the chamber and recirculation of flue gases. Results indicated a drop of NOx concentration only for flue gas recirculation methods. Maximum reduction of 21% was achieved.