Ionela Pașcanu, Claudia Banescu, Simona Huțu, Horea Gozar and Radu Neagoe
Alina Mărginean, Claudia Bănescu, Alina Scridon and Minodora Dobreanu
It is well known that critically ill patients require special attention and additional consideration during their treatment and management. The multiple systems and organ dysfunctions, typical of the critical patient, often results in different patterns of enteral absorption in these patients. Anti-platelet drugs are the cornerstone in treating patients with coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is the treatment of choice in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions and is still widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, despite the use of dual anti-platelet therapy, some patients continue to experience cardiovascular ischemic events. Recurrence of ischemic events is partly attributed to the fact that some patients have poor inhibition of platelet reactivity despite treatment. These patients are considered low- or nonresponders to therapy. The underlying mechanisms leading to resistance are not yet fully elucidated and are probably multifactorial, cellular, genetic and clinical factors being implicated. Several methods have been developed to asses platelet function and can be used to identify patients with persistent platelet reactivity, which have an increased risk of thrombosis. In this paper, the concept of anti-platelet therapy resistance, the underlying mechanisms and the methods used to identify patients with low responsiveness to anti-platelet therapy will be highlighted with a focus on aspirin and clopidogrel therapy and addressing especially critically ill patients.
Anca Bacârea, Claudia Bănescu, Ioan Macarie, Judit Beáta Köpeczi and Bogdana Dorcioman
Very few cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presenting with extreme hyperleukocytosis are reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 66 years old woman, with newly diagnosed CLL presenting with extreme hyperleukocytosis of 774.2 x 109/liter, Rai stage III and Binet stage C. The patient has no comorbidities and the CIRS score (cumulative illness rating scale) is well below 6, with normal creatinine clearance. Some other interesting aspects related with this case are the atypical immunophenotype, the expression of Cyclin D1, and the B hepatitis viral infection, which made her diagnosis and treatment challenging. The patient was tested for NOTCH1 mutation and it was positive. There is important evidence that NOTCH1 mutations are associated with rapidly progressive disease and resistance to treatment. The distinction of CLL from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is not always easy because some MCLs may mimic CLL clinically, histologically, and/or phenotypically. The hepatitis B prophylaxis for viral reactivation was not available an in the end the patient was treated only with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, without rituximab. CD200 should be introduced in the routine panel for flow cytometry to distinguish CLL from mantle cell lymphoma and NOTCH1 mutation is associated with poor prognosis and should be evaluated at diagnosis. CLL with extreme hyperleukocytosis presentation is very rare and sometimes an atypical CLL may represent a diagnostic pitfall.
Alina Bogliş, Florin Tripon and Claudia Bănescu
Molecular genetic testing in craniosynostosis leads to the detection of the mutations in the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), providing information about the etiology of the genetic disorder. Muenke syndrome is produced by p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3 gene with evidence of variable expressivity, representing 8% of the syndromic craniosynostoses.
Here, we present the identification of a p.Pro250Arg pathogenic mutation (c.749C>G) in the FGFR3 gene using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probes Amplification (MLPA) analysis in conjunction with Sanger sequencing in a patient with craniosynostosis and mild intellectual disability. The MLPA analysis detected a reduced signal of the probe, at the site of the c.749C>G mutation, defined by the presence of one allele of C749>G mutation in the FGFR3 gene, exon 7. Sanger sequencing was performed for confirmation and identified heterozygous p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant (c.749C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3.
In conclusion, we assessed the validity and clinical utility of the combined molecular genetic techniques, MLPA analysis, and Sanger sequencing, for craniosynostosis and intellectual disability, improving not only the diagnostic testing but also the genetic counseling and management of the disorder.
Anca Meda Georgescu, Claudia Bănescu, Iudita Badea, Valeriu Moldovan, Adina Huțanu, Septimiu Voidăzan, Minodora Dobreanu and Leonard Azamfirei
Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the correlations between the interleukin-6 IL-6 -174 G/C and IL-6 -572 G/C gene polymorphisms and sepsis risk and severity in adult ICU patients.
Materials and Methods: We prospectively assessed 107 septic patients and divided them into two subgroups: organ dysfunction-free sepsis subgroup S (n=60) and septic shock subgroup SS (n=47). A control group of 96 healthy individuals was included. Both patients and controls underwent IL-6 -174 G/C and -572 G/C genotyping and circulating IL-6 in the study group which were measured from samples taken in the first day of sepsis diagnosis.
Results: No differences in the genotype frequencies of the two polymorphisms between study and control groups were identified. The GC genotype and C allele of IL-6 -572 G/C gene polymorphism was statistically significant more frequent in the organ dysfunction-free subgroup (p=0.01, p=0.004 respectively). No statistically significant differences for the IL-6 -174 G/C gene polymorphism were found between the two sepsis subgroups. Circulating IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the septic shock subgroup and among patients with GG genotypes of both studied polymorphisms.
Conclusion: We underline the possible role of IL-6 -572 G/C as a marker of severe evolution. There is no evidence of a direct role of IL-6 -174 G/C gene polymorphism in sepsis risk and outcome. Il-6 levels are correlated with sepsis severity but not with variant genotype of investigated IL-6 gene polymorphisms.
Adrian Man, Claudia Bănescu, Minodora Dobreanu and Cornel Fraefel
Successful experiments in molecular biology require good knowledge about various methods and protocols. In molecular biology, nucleic acid manipulation is the essence, starting with the quality of extraction and ending with several analysis assays (PCR, RT-PCR, qPCR, PCR arrays, molecular cloning, etc). Though many of these are so called “standardized”, in practice there are many variables that can influence the outcome of the experiment. Due to the importance of optimal primer design in PCR assays, we will focus on primer designing and checking software, but we also present other useful free tools that can help researchers in the molecular biology field
Iolanda Muntean, Carmen Şuteu, Rodica Togănel and Claudia Bănescu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease with a complex pathogenesis. The polymorphism of the gene of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) has been associated with many diseases including PAH.
Objective. In this study we aimed to investigate the relevance of the MDR1 polymorphism to pediatric PAH clinical course.
Methods. A total of 40 pediatric patients with PAH (secondary to congenital heart defects or idiopathic) and 40 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with PAH were divided into 2 groups, according to their evolution: 28 patients who remained clinically stable at 12-months (non-worsening group) and 12 patients who presented clinical worsening at 12-months (worsening group). Genomic DNA was genotyped for MDR1 gene polymorphisms as follows: C1236T, G2677T and C3435T.
Results. There were no significant differences between PAH children groups (clinical worsening and non-worsening) nor between PAH children and controls in terms of frequency distribution of the three studied genotypes or alleles.
Conclusions. The MDR1 polymorphism could not be correlated with the clinical evolution of pediatric PAH patients in our study.
Carmen Duicu, Oana Marginean, Eva Kiss, Lilla Lőrinczi and Claudia Banescu
Pediatricians frequently encounter hematuria in children. One of the tardy complication of pulmonary tuberculosis, which is most characteristic and common in teenagers and middle aged, is represented by genitourinary tuberculosis. Renal tuberculosis is rare during childhood. The authors present a series of cases where the presenting symptom was gross or microscopic persistent hematuria. The diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis was established from early-morning urine culture in all cases. In a patient with symptoms of recurrent urinary tract infection or hematuria associated with sterile pyuria the suspicion of GUTB must be considered. A delayed diagnosis of renal tuberculosis led to kidney damage and sequels of GUTB, including renal failure. Our cases report emphasizes that in case of persistent hematuria GUTB may be considered as a differential diagnosis
George Andrei Crauciuc, Florin Tripon, Alina Bogliş, Amalia Făgărăşan and Claudia Bănescu
Small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) is a rare chromosomal abnormality and is detected in about 0.3% in cases with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) and/or developmental delay. Different techniques for investigation of cases with MCA and/or developmental delay are available ranging from karyotyping to molecular cytogenetic technique and ultimately multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Here we present a patient with multiple congenital anomalies for which classical cytogenetic technique was used as a first step in diagnosis and the results being confirmed by MLPA. The karyotype disclosed a sSMC considered to be a fragment of chromosome 22. The MLPA analysis using SALSA MLPA probemix P064-C2 Microdeletion Syndromes-1B confirmed the karyotype results, and according to the manufacturer’s recommendation we performed another confirmation analysis with MLPA probemix P311-B1 Congenital Heart Disease and MLPA probemix P250-B2 DiGeorge. We also suspected an Emanuel syndrome and performed another MLPA analysis with SALSA MLPA probemix P036-E3 Subtelomeres Mix 1 and probemix P070-B3 Subtelomeres Mix 2B for investigation of subtelomeric region that revealed a duplication of 11q25 region and the confirmation was performed using SALSA MLPA probemix P286-B2 Human Telomere-11.
In conclusion, we consider that MLPA is a valuable method for identification of sSMC in children with developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Genetic diagnosis using different molecular techniques, such as MLPA, for increasing accuracy in identification of chromosomal structural aberrations has an important role in clinical diagnosis and in genetic counselling and our case explain the importance of using a specific laboratory technique for each stage of diagnosis.
Cristina Blesneac, Carmen-Corina Șuteu, Claudia Bănescu, Theodora Benedek, Imre Benedek and Rodica Togănel
Background: LEOPARD syndrome is a complex dysmorphogenetic disorder of inconstant penetrance and various morphologic expressions. The syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that features multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic changes, eye hypertelorism, pulmonary valve stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, genital malformations, and a delayed constitutional growth hearing loss, which can be associated with rapidly progressive severe biventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. No epidemiologic data are available on the real incidence of LEOPARD syndrome; however, this seems to be a rare disease, being often underdiagnosed, as many of its features are mild.
Case presentation: We report the case of a 10-year-old female pediatric patient, diagnosed with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at the age of 3 months, and recently diagnosed with LEOPARD syndrome. The patient first presented for a cardiologic examination at the age of 3 months, due to a murmur. She presented failure to thrive and psychomotor retardation, and was diagnosed with biventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for which she had received high-dose beta-blocker therapy. At the age of 7 years she underwent a biventricular myectomy for relief of outflow tract obstruction, completed with another myectomy after 2 years due to progressive increase of pressure gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract. Prior to the second surgical intervention, multiple lentigines appeared on her skin, and genetic testing revealed the presence of LEOPARD syndrome.
Conclusion: LEOPARD syndrome is a rare disease, which can be very difficult to diagnose, especially based on features other than lentigines. Cardiac involvement in LEOPARD syndrome can be progressive and requires multiple medical and surgical interventions.