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  • Author: Cirila Hlastan Ribič x
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Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Metka Mencin Čeplak, Maja Bajt, Aleš Korošec, Janet Klara Djomba, Jožica Maučec Zakotnik, Cirila Hlastan Ribič and Helena Jeriček Klanšček


Background: Numerous studies have found significant gender differences in health-related behaviour, while a lower number analyse these differences within the gender. The aim of the article is to analyse the differences in individual health-related behaviour indicators among women from different educational groups in Slovenia.

Methods: The analysis is based on the CINDI Health Monitor (2008) survey for Slovenia. The nationally representative sample was chosen using probability sampling and the analysis included 4,237 women aged 25 to 74. The independent variables are: education, in consideration of age, community type, region of residence, the presence of a partner and children and self-perceived social class. The dependent variables are health-related behaviours: nutrition, physical activity, sleeping, stress and care for own health. By comparing averages in health-related behaviour with education and other factors and by classifying participants into homogenous groups, we were able to show differences in health-related behaviour in women with different educational attainment.

Results: Individual health-related behaviour indicators show statistically significant differences between groups of women with different educational attainment; however these are neither very distinct nor unambiguous. Women with a higher educational attainment evaluate the majority of the indicators more favourably than women in other educational groups, but differences can also be found within the group of women with a higher educational attainment. The differences in the health-related behaviour of women with a lower educational attainment are relatively blurred.

Conclusion: The relatively small differences in health-related behaviour can be partially explained by existing differences within the group of women with a higher educational attainment and the fact that the group of women with the lowest educational attainment does not have the worst health-related behaviour indicators, which affects the greater equality in health-related behaviour. On the other hand, the well-established universal and targeted family and child care policies, which have been implemented in Slovenia for decades, also affect these results.

Open access

Cirila Hlastan Ribič, Jožica Maučec Zakotnik, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Rok Poličnik, Urška Blaznik, Nataša Fidler Mis, Ivan Eržen, Chen Ji and Francesco P. Cappucio


Introduction: The main aim of the study was to estimate average daily sodium availability of Slovenian consumers based on the food purchase data for the period 2000-2009. The secondary aim was to look for food group contributors to sodium availability.

Methods: Food purchase records (Household Budget Survey) as well as country-specific reference values and food composition information were used to estimate mean sodium availability of purchased foods (grams of sodium/person/ day - g Na/p/day) as well as food groups and foods with the largest contribution to the total sodium availability.

Discussion and results: The mean sodium availability of purchased foods decreased in the period 2000-2009 and was on average 2,104±132 mg Na/p/day, not accounting for ready-made meals, most semi-prepared foods and adding salt during cooking and at the table. The key food group contributors of sodium in Slovenia were breads and bakery products (35.0%), meat products (27.9%), processed vegetables (6.6%) and cheeses (5.3%).

Conclusions: Notwithstanding the smaller purchased quantities of higher-sodium foods (e.g. sausages, prosciutto, dry meat, pickled cucumbers) in comparison to larger purchased quantities of the medium-sodium foods (e.g. white bread, mixed bread, brown bread, milk, rolls), both food groups contribute significant amounts of sodium in the diets of Slovenians.